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Reduce GHG Emissions: Promote Alternative Transportation through Better Parking and Safety for Cyclists and Motorcyclists. Morgan Chivers, Kimberley DeHart, Ryan Donovan, John Omweg “Every time I see an adult on a bicycle, I no longer despair for the future of the human race.” ~H.G. Wells~.
Reduce GHG Emissions: Promote Alternative Transportation through Better Parking and Safety for Cyclists and Motorcyclists Morgan Chivers, Kimberley DeHart, Ryan Donovan, John Omweg “Every time I see an adult on a bicycle, I no longer despair for the future of the human race.” ~H.G. Wells~
Defining the objective • GHG problem will promote mass transit and bicycle/motor scooter/cycle use. • We want 60% of the total population of students, faculty and staff at SJSU to use transportation other than cars with 10% on bicycles by 2010.
Whose problem is it? • Problem is systemic in that government, industry and people have to collaborate to create a suitable infrastructure for cycling and parking of bicycles and motorcycles. • We looked at cities in Europe as well as Bogota for ideas since they have been more active in promoting cycling.
Obligations of those involved • Cyclists and motorists have to be mutually respectful in terms of safety. • Government officials have to wean the population away from an exclusive car culture to one that embraces mass transit complemented by cycling and motorcycles/motor scooters.
SJSU Transportation • SJSU’s central location public transportation and bike paths make commuting easy • Parking at school is a pain • SJSU Commute Survey 2007 • 46% of students drive alone • 25% of students use VTA. 3% ride bikes to stations / stops • 2% of students ride bikes to school
Proposed solution • Enhanced Parking for Bicycles at SJSU • Safety first. • Stimulate bicycle use through student co-op. • Encourage motorcycle and motor scooter riding by reducing the parking fee to $15/semester. • 62% of motorcycle riders in the US have not attended safety classes. Novices are twice as likely to crash. Demand for training> the supply.
SJSU Bike Parking Increasing bicycle commuting also means adding parking for bicycles and also frees up slots in the garages for cars. Need more efficient racks in dense parking areas More racks throughout campus
SJSU Bike Parking Cages • Cages are safe • only 2 recent thefts • Efficient use of space • Need protection from elements • San Carlos cage fills in wet weather
Bike Parking Alternatives • Racks in parking garages • 1 parking stall can fit 10-12 bikes • Air fill station for cars and/or bikes • Individual bike lockers for high end bikes • Bike valet in unused room with repair area
Promoting Bicycle Commuter Safety BICYCLE COMMUTING SITUATION INCREASED BICYCLE COMMUTING SAFETY FACTS AND STRATEGIES RULES OF THE ROAD THE SAFE ROAD SAFETY GEAR
BICYCLE COMMUTING SITUATION(practical, environmental, social, systemic, and local values) • Rising costs of automobile operation • Health benefits • Environmental values • National, state, city, and university to promote increased use of bicycles • San Jose climate, topology, and biking infrastructure favorable to bicycling
II. INCREASING LEVELS OF BICYCLE COMMUTING • 28% of students live within 5 miles of campus. • Doubling percent of students that use bicycles from current levels of 2.5% could mean over 1,500 more bicycle trips/commuting day. • Bicyclists in the US are at greater risk of injury than those in other nations • Santa Clara has the highest per capita rate of cycling deaths in the nine-county Bay Area.
IIIa: BICYCLE SAFETY FACTS • Many bicycle related injuries are not reported • Reported accidents are severe: 21-61% suffered a head injury and 69-93% of all bicycle accident fatalities are caused by head injuries. • Over 90% killed from crashes with motor vehicles. • Over 70 percent of car-bicycle crashes at driveways or other intersections, where turns are frequent. • Accidents - motorists/bicyclists fail to yield
IIIb: BASIC SAFETY STRATEGIES • First, increased awareness and greater respect for right-of-way would serve to reduce overall accident rates considerably. • Second, to the degree that crossing paths and turning relations between cars and bicycles can be reduced in frequency, many of these types of accidents could be avoided. • Third, the bicyclist can utilize safety equipment to minimize frequency or severity of accidents.
IV. RULES OF THE ROAD:behaving and thinking in terms of a shared environment Legal environment • Education and knowledge are generally distributed • Laws are reasonably appropriate to existing conditions • Laws enforced consistently and fairly. Education, Awareness, Attitudes, Behavior
Va. THE SAFE ROAD • Analysis of safety qualities of various environments. • Design or implementation of roads, bicycle lanes, intersections, campus bicycling environments, bicycle paths and trails. • Incidental environmental factors: Road hazards, meteorological, obstacles, parked cars.
Vb: Street design that separates vehicle from bicycle transit areas • bicycle lanes and “sharrow” areas on roads • bicycle paths or trails that are separate from surface streets • physical barriers • bike streets
Vc: ADDITIONAL SAFETY FACILITIES LIST • Locks and bicycle storage • Special Bicycle-responsive signals • Lighting • Signs
VIa. SAFETY GEAR: A campaign to increase bicycle safety would: • Advise bicyclists of the importance of safety items • Increase the practical use of such gear • Offer affordable, convenient, and attractive options to obtaining such items
VIb: SAFETY GEAR LIST • Fitted bicycle, working brakes, inflated tires, fitted and effective helmet, shoes to protect feet • Required lighting/visibility safety measures: Front white light; white front, red rear, pedal, and side reflectors. • Recommended safety measures: Red rear light; reflective clothing.
VIc: SAFETY GEAR LIST • Patch kit and pump • Bicycle locks • Tools • Maintenance knowledge • Sunglasses or glasses • Ergonomic seat • Bell or horn
VId: HELMET USE • 80% of head and brain injuries can be prevented by wearing a helmet • Only 35% to 50% of bicyclists wear helmets. Major obstacles to helmet use include cost, comfort, and peer disapproval • “The Grateful Head” raised helmet use from 27.6% to 49.3% via a “social marketing” that combined: peer agents, educational materials, pledge cards, free helmets and safety equipment
VII. CONCLUSION: three action items • Legal/educational resources must be devoted to improve awareness, attitudes, and behavior that honor rules of the road • transit infrastructure must reflect safe road design philosophy that respects the presence and vulnerability of bicyclists • bicyclists should use the safety gear needed to reduce frequency/severity of accidents
Motorcycle Safety: training and licensing • 62% have never taken a training course • Crash rates among untrained novice riders were double • Demand exceeded the current number of training facilities, 40% were turned away • 25% of motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes are unlicensed • Unlicensed riders are 2 to 3 times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash and 20 times higher on a suspended license
Stimulate bicycle use: support student co-op Three options: • similar to the UC Davis’ Bike Barn, offering bike and accessories, rentals, & repairs • student-run repair facility, offering work-space, tool checkout, and advice • student club, strengthening the cycling community and advocating for cyclists
Performance factors relate to safety • Fuel consumption, size of the motorcycle engine, riding style and techniques of the rider. Combined factors can create safety issues when not considered in purchase • Conspicuity: Daytime lamps & fluorescent jackets/strips
Roadway Environment & Education Designing, constructing, and maintaining roadways with the motorcyclists in mind, including: • Smooth edge transitions with asphalt • Proper warnings of drop-offs, shoulder & hazardous areas Teaching motorcycle awareness in traffic mixes • Promoting joint/shared use on roadways • Educating safe riding habits for motorcyclists
Deadliest injuries are to head and chest • DOT approved helmet is most critical factor in the prevention and reduction of head injuries • Other important safety considerations: proper eyewear; heavy duty boots to protect ankles and overall foot; long-sleeve clothing, pants, leather and chaps protect the skin
Parking Issues: SJSU and Downtown • Motorcycling increased from 330,000 in 1996 to over 1,160,000 in 2006. • New riders tend to be young riders or over 50 • Greater risk for vandalism and theft of the motorcycle itself than of vehicles • City has 70 designated parking spaces in and around the downtown area for motorcycles, 59 of them at SJSU (only 11 parking spaces on the streets of downtown) • Competition for 59 spots difficult during daylight hours and start of semester • SJSU parking structures are not set-up with designated parking just for motorcycles. 7th street garage has parking in the corners of the building, not designed with motorcycles in mind.
Conclusions • Feasibility: Improved parking on campus is easy. Redesigning San Jose to make it bike friendly would be difficult but other cities have done it. • Creativity or Innovation: Not particularly creative but we were all reminded of safety. • Extent of making a constructive change: Getting cars off the road is critical.