The Transportation Challenge. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector (2007) . http://www.pewclimate.org/technology/overview/transportation. Transportation Energy Use by Mode (2006). Source: DOE, Transportation Energy Data Book , Table 4.17 and 4.18, 2008. .
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U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector (2007) http://www.pewclimate.org/technology/overview/transportation Transportation Energy Use by Mode (2006)
Source: DOE, Transportation Energy Data Book, Table 4.17 and 4.18, 2008. Source: DOE, Transportation Energy Data Book, Table 3.6, 2008.
Global Demand Projections Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Transport and its infrastructure." InMitigation of Climate Change . Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Figure 5.3.
Alternative transportation fuels hydrogen – fuel cells efficiency of hydrogen as energy carrier electric – batteries plug-ins hybrid vehicles off-grid – e.g. Prius plug-in hybrids biofuels ethanol, methanol biodiesel Concept of ‘well-to-wheels’ efficiency as measure
Hydrogen fuel cell Plug-in battery electric
Hydrogen sources: steam – methane 2H2O + CH4 -> CO2 + 3H2 At high temperatures (700 – 1100 °C) and in the presence of a metal catalyst, steam steam reacts with methane to yield carbon dioxide and water hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases are compressed and separated coal gasification coal -> CO, CO2, CH4, H2 (syngas) heating in absence of oxygen (in situ coal gasification, e.g.) hydrogen is separated from compressed syngas electrolysis 2H2O -> 2H2 + O2 requires direct electrical current; oxygen and hydrogen collect at anode and cathode
Plug-in hybrid Grid-independent hybrid “Hi-performance” plug-in 2009 Model S Base Price $49,900
Ships: Heavier fuel oil, coal(?) are feasible alternatives Airplanes: biofuels - methanol, ethanol – lower energy density biodiesel – experimentation is on-going hydrogen – storage systems may be too heavy