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Utility and . Demand. Definitions. Marginal an extra unit Utility the satisfaction gained from consuming a product or service Marginal Utility the extra satisfaction (utility) gained from consuming one more unit of a product or service . Marginal and Total Utility.

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Utility and


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Utility and Demand

    2. Definitions • Marginal • an extra unit • Utility • the satisfaction gained from consuming a product or service • Marginal Utility • the extra satisfaction (utility) gained from consuming one more unit of a product or service

    3. Marginal and Total Utility # lattes Utility from that Total utility from all latte (Marginal Utility) lattes 1 120 120 2 90 210 3 65 275 4 45 320 5 25 345 6 23 368 7 10 378 8 4 382 9 0 382 10 -2 380

    4. Marginal Utility • marginal utility = D in total utility D in # of units • diminishing marginal utility • the amount of additional utility (marginal utility) decreases as more of the product is bought

    5. Total utility Marginal utility Total and Marginal Utility 345 Units of utility 275 Units of utility …and diminishing marginal utility Increasing total utility... 120 120 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Quantity - lattes Quantity - lattes

    6. Marginal Utility

    7. a 0 0 10 30 b 1 6 8 24 c 2 12 6 18 d 3 18 4 12 e 4 24 2 6 f 5 30 0 0 Consumption Possibilities Movies ($6) Bowling ($3) Expenditure Expenditure Possibility Quantity(dollars) Games (dollars)

    8. a b c d e f Consumption Possibilities 10 Affordable 8 Unaffordable Bowling (games per month) 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Movies (per month)

    9. Movies Bowling Quantity per month Total Utility Total utility Lisa’s Total Utility from Movies and Bowling 0 0 0 1 50 75 2 88 117 3 121 153 4 150 181 5 175 206 6 196 225 7 214 243 8 229 260 9 241 276 10 250 291 11 256 305 12 259 318 13 261 330 14 262 341

    10. 291 310 313 302 267 175 a 0 0 291 10 b 1 50 260 8 c 2 88 225 6 d 3 121 181 4 e 4 150 117 2 f 5 175 0 0 c 2 88 225 6 313 Lisa's Utility-Maximizing Combination Movies Bowling Total utility Quantity from movies Games per month Total utility and bowling Total utility per month

    11. Marginal utility Marginal utility from movies from bowling = Price of a movie Price of bowling MUmMUb PmPb = OR Maximizing Utility The marginal utility per dollar spent is the marginal utility obtained from the last unit of the good, divided by its price.

    12. Equalizing Marginal Utilities per Dollar Spent Movies ($6 each) Bowling ($3 per game) Marginal Marginal utility utility Marginal per dollar Marginal per dollar Quantity utility spent Quantity utility spent a 0 0 10 15 b 1 50 8 17 c 2 38 6 19 d 3 33 4 28 e 4 29 2 42 f 5 25 0 0 5.00 8.33 5.67 6.33 6.33 5.50 9.33 4.83 14.00 4.17 c 2 38 6.33 6 19 6.33

    13. How a Change in Price of Movies Affects Lisa’s Choices Bowling ($3 per six pack) Movies ($3 each) Marginal utility per dollar spent Marginal utility per dollar spent Quantity Games 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5.005.33 5.67 6.00 6.33 8.33 9.33 12.00 14.00 25.00 16.67 12.67 11.00 9.67 8.33 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 5 8.33 5 8.33

    14. A Fall in the Price of Movies Movies Bowling Lisa’s demand for bowling when movies cost $6 6 Lisa’s demand for movies 6 Lisa’s demand for bowling when movies cost $3 Price (dollars per movie) Price (dollars per six-pack) 3 3 0 2 5 0 5 6 Quantity (movies per month) Quantity (games per month)

    15. How a Change in Price of Bowling Affects Lisa’s Choices Bowling ($6 per game) Movies ($3 each) Marginal utility per dollar spent Marginal utility per dollar spent Quantity Games 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 4.174.676.007.0012.50 12.679.677.005.003.00 6 7.00 2 7.00

    16. A Rise in the Price of Bowling Bowling Movies 6 6 Lisa’s demand for movies when bowling costs $6 Lisa’s demand for bowling Price (dollars per game) Price (dollars per movie) Lisa’s demand for movies when bowling costs $3 3 3 0 2 5 0 5 6 Quantity (games per month) Quantity (movies per month)

    17. Predictions of MarginalUtility Theory Two predictions of marginal utility theory: When the price of a good rises, the quantity demanded for that good decreases. If the price of one good rises, the demand for another good that can serve as a substitute increases. EXPLAINED theory of Chapter 3

    18. Lisa’s Choices with an Income of $42 a Month Movies ($3 per movie) Bowling ($3 per game) Marginal utility Marginal utility Quantity per dollar spent Games per dollar spent 0 14 3.67 1 16.67 13 4.00 2 12.67 12 4.33 3 11.00 11 4.67 4 9.67 10 5.00 5 8.33 9 5.33 6 7.00 8 5.67 7 6.00 7 6.00 8 5.00 6 6.33 9 4.00 5 8.33 10 3.00 4 9.33 11 2.00 3 12.00 12 1.00 2 14.00 13 0.67 1 25.00 14 0.33 0 7 6.00 7 6.00

    19. Individual Demand and Market Demand Market demandis the relationship between the total quantity demanded of a good and its price. Individual demand is the relationship between quantity demanded of a good by a single individual and its price.

    20. = = = = = = + + + + + + Market 1 2 3 5 7 9 Individual and Market Demand Curves Price Quantity of movies demanded (dollars per movie) Lisa 7 1 6 2 5 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 Chuck 0 0 0 1 2 3

    21. 8 8 6 6 4 4 3 3 2 2 5 + 2 = 7 movies Individual and Market Demand Curves Market Demand Lisa’s demand Price (dollars per movie) Price (dollars per movie) Chuck’s demand 2 movies 5 movies 0 2 4 5 6 8 0 2 4 5 6 8 9 Quantity (movies per month) Quantity (movies per month)

    22. The Paradox of Value Diamonds have a high price and a high marginal utility, while water has a low price and a low marginal utility. At consumer equilibrium, the marginal utility per dollar spent is the same for diamonds as for water.