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Virtually meaningful or virtually meaningless?. Paula novo (UPM), aparna sridhar (LSE) and elena lopez-gunn (FMB-OBS) Istanbul 18 th March 2009. Outline. WF ´Onion´ layers Water & Environment Water & Equity Problems with Translating Virtual Water?. WF ‘Onion ’ Layers.

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virtually meaningful or virtually meaningless

Virtually meaningful or virtually meaningless?

Paula novo (UPM), aparna sridhar (LSE)

and elena lopez-gunn (FMB-OBS)

Istanbul 18th March 2009

outline
Outline
  • WF ´Onion´ layers
  • Water & Environment
  • Water & Equity
  • Problems with Translating Virtual Water?
wf onion layers
WF ‘Onion’ Layers

Roth and Warner (2008)

Allan (2008 )

????

Social & political

2009

FMB-OBS, Chapagain et al. (2006)

Environmental

2007

Economic

UPM-FMB

Allan (1997), Hoekstra (2000), Chapagain and Hoekstra (2004), Yang et al. (2006), Zimmer and Renault (2002), etc.

1997

Hydrological

water environment
Water & Environment
  • ´E´ water footprint- to consider at least two aspects:
    • Environmental flows ( & ´E´ water footprint )
      • Example: Guadalquivir (Spain), South Africa
    • Water quality ( & ´Grey´ water footprint)
  • Example:
    • Brazil and Biofuels: quantity but not quality neutral

Sugar Production

in Brazil

States in Brazil

Source: Sridhar (2008)

Bertrand et al (2006, 36)

IBGE (2008)

grey wf of biofuels in brazil
‘Grey’ WF of Biofuels in Brazil
  • Hoekstra and Chapagain (2006)
    • Brazil’s WF to be 233.59 Gm3/year.
  • Sridhar (2008)
    • 7% of Brazil's total WF can be attributed to sugar cane ethanol production in São Paolo.
    • However, the WF of sugar cane ethanol, is predominantly ‘polluted water.’
  • Degradation of water quality (<stock?)
  • Ethical and social questions particularly locally for the poorest? Other countries?
water equity
Water & Equity
  • Social WF
    • Mixing apples with pears:
      • Aquifer 23 (Mancha Occidental, Spain): PEAG + Re-forestation
        • 10000 €/ha + 600 €/ha x 20 years -> Social Water Footprint?
        • ‘More jobs per (ill)legal drop’?
    • Myth of ‘social’ water neutrality (Roth and Warner, 2008)

Number of farmers

Irrigated land with water rights

Source: Zorrilla (2009)

Source: Zorrilla (2009)

water translations
Water & ‘Translations’
  • Meaning is dependent on context…
  • Can ‘translations’ have unintended consequences?
wf onion layers1
WF ‘Onion’ Layers

Hydrological

Economic

Environmental

Social & Political

the end
The End

Thank you for your attention!