The Progressive Era • To what extent did the United States become more democratic during the Progressive Era? • In what ways did the responsibilities of the federal government grow during this time of reform? • To what extent did the Progressive Era successfully address the economic, political, and social problems of the Gilded Age?
CAUSES Growth of Industry Growth of Cities THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT (1900-1920) EFFECTS Political Social Economic Presidents and Themes
POLITICAL REFORMS • Extend or protect political rights of previously disenfranchised groups • Are intended to make public officials more accountable to the public • Attack corruption and abuses of power by public officials.
POLITICAL EFFECTS • Political reforms: - secret ballots - initiative, referendum, and recall - direct primaries - 17th amendment= direct election of senators - 19th amendment= women’s suffrage • Decline of machine politics • Split in Republican Party, 1912
SOCIAL REFORMS Reforms that seek to protect and promote the human and social rights of deprived groups in society.
SOCIAL EFFECTS • Laws protecting workers • Settlement houses and social work (Jane Addams) • Prohibition (18th amendment) • Birth control for women (Margaret Sanger) • Beginning of a movement for civil rights for African Americans (W.E. B. Du Bois & Booker T. Washington)
ECONOMIC REFORMS Reforms that seek to control corporate behavior and check the abuses practiced by large corporations.
ECONOMIC EFFECTS • Regulation of big business • Lower tariffs • Reformed banking system • Conservation of land and water • 16th amendment=federal income tax
PROGRESSIVE ERA PRESIDENTS • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Republican • William Howard Taft (1909-1913) Republican • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Democrat
3 Main Goals of the Progressive Movement • Make the government more democratic (more power in the hands of the people) • Ameliorate the effects of industrialization • Rein in the corporations through government regulation of big business
IMPORTANT THEMESor “BIG IDEAS” in US History Increasing the power of the federal government US becoming more democratic
What group of people brought the problems of industrialization and urbanization to the attention of the American people? How did they do it?
Muckrakers were investigative journalists who exposed the “underside” of American life. ____ Muckrakers exposed a variety of problems ranging from political corruption to child labor and the abuses of big business.
Notable Muckrakers • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1889) • Lincoln Steffens, Shame of the Cities (1904) • Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) • John Spargo, Bitter Cry of the Children (1906) • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906)
Jacob Riis 1849-1914 Photojournalist who believed that the “poor were the victims rather than the makers of their fate." How the Other Half Lives, an illustrated account of city life, was published in 1889 and brought the problems of urbanization to the attention of city leaders including Theodore Roosevelt. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAriis.htm>
A New York Tenement Flat 1910 http://www.usc.edu/programs/cst/deadfiles/lacasis/ansc100/library/images/397.html