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The IFC, The IBC and E Occupancies International Fire Code Intent

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international fire code intent
International Fire Code Intent
  • The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and property protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and premises and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency conditions.
international building code intent
International Building Code Intent
  • The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities…and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.
chapter one

Chapter One


ifc section 106 inspections
IFC Section 106 Inspections
  • 106.3 Concealed work. Whenever any installation subject to inspections prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection.
ibc section 109 inspections
IBC Section 109 Inspections
  • To be accessible and exposed until approved…

- Footings and Foundations

- Concrete slab and underfloor areas

- Lowest floor elevations (flood zones)

- Framing

- Lath and gypsum board inspections

ibc inspections continued
IBC Inspections Continued

- Fire-resistive penetrations

- Energy efficiency inspections

- Other inspections required by building official.

- Special Inspections

- Final Inspection

ifc section 107 maintenance
IFC Section 107 Maintenance
  • Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such device…shall thereafter by continuously maintained in accordance with this code and applicable referenced standards.
maintenance cont d
Maintenance Cont’d
  • Testing and operation of equipment
  • Test and inspection records
  • Re-inspection and testing
  • Supervision
  • Rendering equipment inoperable.
  • Owner/occupant responsibility
  • Overcrowding
chapter 3

Chapter 3

General Fire Precautions

Use & Occupancy Classification

ifc section 304 combustible waste material
IFC Section 304Combustible Waste Material

- Not allowed to accumulate in buildings or upon the premises. Includes spaces underneath grandstands and bleacher seats.

- Storage not to create a nuisance or hazard.

- Oily rags to be stored in listed, disposal container with tight fitting lid and contents disposed of daily.

ifc section 3 cont d
IFC Section 3 Cont’d
  • Dumpsters and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic yard or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines.
ifc section 308 open burning recreational fires
IFC Section 308Open Burning & Recreational Fires
  • General – A person shall not kindle or maintain or authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless conducted and approved in accordance with this section.
  • Permit required.
  • Authorization from Division of Air Quality
  • Location-not less than 50 feet from any structure.
ifc section 308 open flames
IFC Section 308 Open Flames
  • A person shall not utilize or allow to be utilized, an open flame in connection with a public meeting or gathering for purposes of deliberation, worship, entertainment, amusement, instruction, education, recreation, …without fire obtaining a permit.
  • Candles shall not be located on or near combustible materials
section 313 fueled equipment
Section 313 Fueled Equipment
  • Fueled equipment including but not limited to lawn-care equipment… shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building.

Exception: A building or room constructed for such use in accordance with the IBC.

- 313.1.1 Authorizes the fire code official to require removal of fueled equipment from locations deemed hazardous.

ifc section 314 indoor displays
IFC Section 314 Indoor Displays
  • Displays of highly combustible goods, including but not limited to…agricultural goods, are prohibited in main exit access aisles, corridors or within 5 feet of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors when a fire involving such goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress.
indoor displays cont d

1. Disconnect battery

2. ¼ tank of fuel or 5 gallons, which ever is less.

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.

4. Vehicles are not fueled or de-fueled within the building.

Indoor Displays Cont’d
ifc section 315 miscellaneous combustible materials storage
IFC Section 315 MiscellaneousCombustible Materials Storage
  • Storage in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from heat sources.
  • Clearance from ceilings, 18 inches in sprinklered buildings, 24 inches in non-sprinklered buildings.
  • No storage in means of egress, exits or exit enclosures.
  • No storage in boiler rooms, electrical or mechanical equipment rooms.
incidental and accessory use areas
Incidental and AccessoryUse Areas
  • Areas or spaces that are subordinate and secondary to the structure’s primary function.
  • Limited in size
  • May or may not require separation
ibc section 302 1 1 1 separation
IBC Section 302.1.1.1Separation
  • Where Table 302.1.1 permits an automatic fire-extinguishing system without a fire barrier, the incidental use area shall be separated by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke.
chapter 4

Chapter 4

Emergency Planning

Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use

ifc section 404 fire safety and evacuation plan
IFC Section 404Fire Safety and Evacuation Plan
  • Emergency egress or escape routes
  • Procedures for employees who must remain to operate critical equipment before evacuating
  • Procedures for accounting for occupants and employees after evacuation has been completed
section 404 cont d
Section 404 Cont’d
  • Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for rescue or emergency medical aid
  • The preferred and any alternative means of notifying occupants of a fire or emergency
  • The preferred and any alternative means of reporting fires and other emergencies to the authorities
section 404 cont d25
Section 404 Cont’d
  • Identification and assignment of personnel who can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan
  • A description of the emergency voice/alarm communication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice messages, where provided
ifc section 404 3 2 fire safety plans
IFC Section 404.3.2Fire Safety Plans
  • The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency
  • The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, relocating, or evacuating occupants
  • Site plans indicating:

a. The occupancy assembly point

b. The location of fire hydrants

c. Access routes for vehicles

section 404 3 2 cont d
Section 404.3.2 Cont’d
  • Floor plans identifying:

a. Exits

b. Primary and secondary evacuation routes

c. Accessible egress routes and areas of refuge.

d. Pull stations

e. Fire extinguishers

f. Fire alarm annunciators and controls

section 404 3 2 cont d28
Section 404.3.2 Cont’d
  • A list of major fire hazards
  • Identification of personnel responsible for maintenance of systems and equipment installed to prevent or control fires
  • Identification of personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling fuel hazard sources
ifc section 405 emergency evacuation drills
IFC Section 405Emergency Evacuation Drills
  • Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted monthly in elementary schools.
  • Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at least every two months in secondary schools for a total of four drills in nine months. The first drill shall be conducted within the first two weeks of the school year.
ifc section 408 3 emergency evacuation drills
IFC Section 408.3Emergency Evacuation Drills
  • First drill of each school year shall be conducted within the first 10 days.
  • Emergency drills shall be conducted at different times of the day
  • Outdoor assembly areas shall be designated and shall be located a safe distance from the building.
  • Shall provide accountability
ibc section 410 1 stages and platforms
IBC Section 410.1Stages and Platforms
  • Stage is a space within a building utilized for entertainment which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects.
  • To be called a stage the area must measure 1000 sq. ft. in floor area and 50 ft. in height.
stages platforms cont d
Stages & Platforms Cont’d
  • Section 410.5.2 - Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by fire barrier wall and horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with protected openings.
stages platforms cont d33
Stages & Platforms Cont’d
  • An automatic sprinkler system is required for stages that are 1,000 square feet in floor area and 50 feet in height.
  • Standpipes are required on stages 1,000 square feet in area and 50 feet in height.
  • At least one exit from each side of stage is required
spray finishing areas
Spray Finishing Areas
  • Spray booths, areas and rooms shall be protected by a sprinkler system
  • Construct of materials that allow cleaning
  • Filters shall be changed often
  • Sprinkler heads are to be protected
  • Light fixtures and exposed electrical wiring shall be explosion proof
chapter 5

Chapter 5

Fire Service Features

General Building Heights and Areas

ifc section 504 access to building openings
IFC Section 504Access To Building Openings
  • Required exterior doors and openings shall be maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire department.
  • Required exterior doors for fire department access shall not be eliminated without prior approval and shall not be obstructed
section 505 premises identification
Section 505Premises Identification
  • New and existing buildings shall have approved address numbers, placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property
ifc section 507 hazards to fire fighters
IFC Section 507Hazards to Fire Fighters
  • Trapdoors and scuttle covers shall be kept closed at all times except when in use or are automatically operated.
  • Outside opening accessible to the Fire department and which open on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors shall be plainly marked in red letters, 6 inches high, on white background
hazards to fire fighters cont d
Hazards to Fire Fighters Cont’d
  • Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked.
  • The intentional design or alteration of buildings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited
ifc section 508 fire protection water supplies
IFC Section 508Fire Protection Water Supplies
  • Fire hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests and shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired where defective.
  • A 3-foot clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of a fire hydrant.
  • Bollards shall be provided when needed
ifc 510 fd access to equipment
IFC 510FD Access to Equipment
  • Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls…shall be identified for fire department use. Signs shall be permanently installed, readily visible and durable.
ibc chapter 5 general building heights and areas
IBC Chapter 5General Building Heights and Areas
  • Numbers or addresses shall be provided for new buildings in such a position as to be clearly visible and legible from the street fronting the property.
chapter 6

Chapter 6

Building Services & Systems

Types of Construction

ifc section 605 electrical equipment wiring hazards
IFC Section 605 ElectricalEquipment Wiring & Hazards
  • Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes and electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used
  • Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panals.
electrical equipment wiring and hazards cont d
Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards Cont’d
  • A working space of not less than 30 inches in width, 36 inches in depth and 78 inches in height shall be provided in front of electrical equipment.
  • Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM.
  • Electrical panals shall be labeled.
electrical hazards cont d
Electrical Hazards Cont’d
  • Multiplug adaptors shall comply with the NEC or are prohibited.
  • Relocatable power taps shall be polarized or grounded, equipped with overcurrent protection and be listed. They shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
  • Shall not extend through floors, walls, etc.
electrical hazards cont d47
Electrical Hazards Cont’d
  • Extension Cords shall not be used as permanent wiring, shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, under doors or floor coverings and shall not be subjected to damage.
  • Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.
electrical hazards cont d48
Electrical Hazards Cont’d
  • Extension cords shall be plugged directly into a receptacle
  • The ampacity of the cord shall not be less than the rated capacity of the appliance being served.
  • Maintained in good conditon
  • Extension cord shall be grounded when serving grounded appliances
electrical hazards cont d49
Electrical Hazards Cont’d
  • Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices are prohibited
  • Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed
  • Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days.
ibc chapter 6
IBC Chapter 6
  • Types of Construction
chapter 7

Chapter 7

Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

section 705 fire walls
Section 705 Fire Walls
  • Create two separate buildings
  • Must provide same level of structural integrity and independence as an exterior wall
  • Under fire conditions-must remain intact to 2 hours if one or the other side collapses.
  • Has minimum fire-rating of 2 hours
  • Continuous from footings to parapet
section 706 fire barrier
Section 706 Fire Barrier
  • Used for separating exits, incidental use areas, shafts, and fire areas.
  • Fire barriers cannot terminated at the ceiling
  • Areas separated with a fire barriers are not considered separate buildings
  • Openings are limited to 25% of wall space
708 fire partitions
708 Fire Partitions
  • Wall assemblies that enclose an exit access corridor
  • Openings are not limited but must be protected
  • Extend from the top of the floor assembly to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly
section 712 penetrations
Section 712 Penetrations
  • Penetrations through fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected to maintain the integrity of the hourly rating.
  • Each type of penetration requires a specific method of protection based on the type of assembly that is penetrated and the type of penetrating item.
712 penetrations cont d
712 Penetrations Cont’d
  • If sleeves are used, the space between the sleeve and the penetrating item as well as the space between the sleeve and the assembly shall be protected.
  • Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate the assembly unless tested by ASTM
712 penetrations cont d57
712 Penetrations Cont’d
  • In a masonry wall, mortar or cement may be used.
  • Tape and sheetrock mud does not produce a fire-resistance rating around pipe, conduit, etc.
  • UL Directories, Factory Mutual and others provide accepted, listed methods and materials.
chapter 8

Chapter 8

Interior Finishes

ifc interior finish decorative materials furnishing
IFC Interior Finish, Decorative Materials & Furnishing
  • Furnishing or decorations of an explosive or highly flammable character shall not be used.
  • Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions encountered in actual use.
interior finishes cont d
Interior Finishes Cont’d
  • Furnishings or other objects shall not be placed to obstruct exits, exit access or egress or visibility
ifc section 803 3 1 storage in corridors and lobbies
IFC Section 803.3.1Storage in corridors and lobbies
  • Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies


- Corridors protected by an -automatic sprinkler system

- Corridors protected by an approved smoke detection system

- Storage in metal lockers

803 3 2 artwork in corridors
803.3.2 Artwork in Corridors
  • Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.
ifc section 804 decorative vegetation
IFC Section 804Decorative Vegetation
  • Natural cut trees allowed in sprinklered buildings only.
  • Support device should hold the tree securely and be sized large enough so the tree won’t fall over
  • 2-day supply of water
  • When full, water shall cover tree stem at least 2-inches, check daily
decorative vegetation cont d
Decorative Vegetation Cont’d
  • Check daily for dryness-discard when needles are dry, brittle, and fall off easily when shaken
  • Do not obstruct required width of means of egress
  • Do not use candles or open flame near tree and keep a distance from heat source
decorative vegetation
Decorative Vegetation
  • Use lights that are listed
  • Live vegetation shall be flame-retardant treated (SFMO)
  • Artificial vegetation shall e flame resistance or flame retardant treated with documentation
  • Use lights that are listed on artificial vegetation
  • No lights on metal trees
ibc interior finishes
IBC Interior Finishes
  • Purpose: This chapter contains the performance requirements for controlling fire growth within buildings by restricting interior finish materials and decorations.
ibc section 805 decorations trim
IBC Section 805 Decorations & Trim
  • Curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be flame resistant or noncombustible.
  • Noncombustible decorative materials shall not be limited
decorations trim cont d
Decorations & Trim Cont’d
  • The amount of flame-resistant decorative material shall not exceed 10% of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings.
  • Foam plastics basically cannot be used. Has to be covered by thermal barrier or subjects to rigorous testing
chapter 9

Chapter 9

Fire Protection Systems

ifc section 901
IFC Section 901
  • Fire Protection Systems shall be maintained
  • Non-required systems shall meet the requirements of the IBC and the IFC
  • Any device that has the appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but does not perform as such shall be prohibited
fire protection systems cont d
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved
  • Fire Protection Systems shall be operational at all times and shall be repaired or replaced when defective
fire protection systems cont d72
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for three years and made available to the code official
fire protection systems cont d73
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Systems Out of Service: When systems are out of service, notify the fire department and the code official. When required by the code official, the building shall be evacuated or a fire watch provided
  • Fire watch shall have at least one method to notify the fire department, the fire watch is the only duty
fire protection systems cont d74
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Any system or portion of a system that is out of service shall be tagged indicating exactly what has been identified as a problem
  • If a system is planned to be taken out of service, a Preplanned Impairment Program is required
fire protection systems cont d75
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • An Impairment Program requires:
  • The extent & expected duration
  • Evaluate the risk to the area or building
  • Recommendations have been submitted to the building owner
  • Notify the Fire Department
impairment plan cont d
Impairment Plan Cont’d
  • Notify the insurance carrier, the alarm monitoring company, building owner and code official
  • Notify supervisors in affected area
  • Place the impairment tag on system
  • Assemble necessary tools and materials
fire protection cont d
Fire Protection Cont’d
  • Emergency Impairment:
  • During unplanned impairments, appropriate actions shall be take to minimize potential injury and damage.
  • Implement steps of a Preplanned Impairment Program
fire protection systems cont d78
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Restoring systems to service:
  • Perform inspections and testing to verify proper operation of system
  • Advise supervisors that system is restored
  • Advise Fire Department of restoration
fire protection systems cont d79
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Advise building owner, alarm company, insurance carrier and other interested parties of restoration
  • Remove impairment tag
fire protection systems cont d80
Fire Protection Systems Cont’d
  • Removal or Tampering with Equipment:
  • It is unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, suppression system or other fire appliance
sprinkler system
Sprinkler System
  • In E occupancies:
  • A sprinkler system is required throughout all fire areas greater than 20,000 sq. ft.
  • Throughout all portions of building below the level of exit discharge unless every classroom throughout has exterior door at ground level
sprinkler system cont d
Sprinkler System Cont’d
  • Sprinklers are required in spray finishing areas, booths or rooms.
  • Existing buildings:

Sprinklers can provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing structures not complying with the minimum requirements of the IBC

hood suppression system
Hood Suppression System
  • A hood suppression system is required over kitchen equipment which produces smoke and grease laden vapors or grease of appreciable depth (1/4 inch)
hood systems cont d
Hood Systems Cont’d
  • Shall meet the requirement of UL 300
  • Automatic and manual operation
  • System interconnection for fuel and power shutoff
  • Requires K-type extinguisher within 30 feet of the appliances
hood system cont d
Hood System Cont’d
  • Ventilation system required with specific rate of air movement
  • Classified grease filters shall be in place when grease hood is in use
  • Clean regularly to prevent accumulation of grease, records of cleaning are to be kept on premises
  • Service every 6 months – Certificate of Inspection shall go to code official
  • Class III standpipes are required on each side of a stage.
  • Shall be equipped with a 1.5 inch and a 2.5 inch hose connection
  • Hose and cabinet shall have sufficient length of 1.5 inch hose to protect the entire state area
portable fire extinguisher
Portable Fire Extinguisher
  • Required as required by NFPA 10 but can be limited to special hazard areas if the building is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers
  • Required within 30 feet of commercial cooking equipment
  • Required where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed
portable fire extinguishers cont d
Portable Fire Extinguishers Cont’d
  • Required in special hazard areas including laboratories, computer rooms, and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official
  • Located in conspicuous locations in the normal path of travel
  • Not obstructed or clearly marked
  • Mounted not more that 5-feet above the floor
fire alarm systems
Fire Alarm Systems
  • Required in schools with an occupant load over 50
  • No pull stations at exits if building is equipped with a sprinkler system
  • Visual and audible appliances
  • Duct detectors connected to fire alarm system, access provided
  • Monitored off site
fire department connections
Fire Department Connections
  • Located on street side of buildings, fully visible and recognizable from street
  • Existing buildings-Wherever a FDC is not visible, a sign shall be mounted on street side indicating FDC location. Letters “FDC” shall be 6-inches high. Words shall be 2-inches high
chapter 10

Chapter 10

Means of Egress

ifc ibc section 1001 general
IFC & IBC Section 1001General
  • Every building and portion thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system
  • It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the required number of exits
  • Means of egress systems shall be maintained in accordance with the IFC
section 1003 6
Section 1003.6
  • Clear path of egress travel
  • Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of a means of egress
  • The required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel
section 1016 corridors
Section 1016 Corridors
  • Minimum corridor width shall not be less than 44 inches.
  • In group E - Required width of 6-feet where the capacity is 100 or more.
  • Required width of 3-feet where the capacity is less than 50
section 1006 means of egress illumination
Section 1006Means of Egress Illumination
  • The means of egress, including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building is occupied
section 1006 3 illumination emergency power
Section 1006.3Illumination Emergency Power
  • In the event of a power failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate:
  • Exit access corridors, passageways and aisles in rooms with two exits
  • Exit stairways
  • Exterior egress components at othe than the level of exit discharge
emergency illumination cont d
Emergency Illumination Cont’d
  • Interior exit discharge elements in buildings required to have two or more exits
  • The portion of the exterior exit discharge immediately adjacent to exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
  • Emergency power system shall provide power for 90 minutes
section 1011 exit signs
Section 1011 Exit Signs
  • Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by and approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel
  • Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor is more than 100 feet from the nearest visible exit sign
exit signs continued
Exit Signs Continued
  • Shall be illuminated at all times
  • May be internally or externally illuminated
  • Shall be connected to an emergency power system, battery or generator
  • Shall remain illuminated not less than 90 minutes after a power outage
section 1008 doors
Section 1008 Doors
  • Means of egress doors shall be easily recognizable as doors and shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials
  • Minimum clear width of a door is 32 inches of clear opening between the face of the door and the stop when the door is open 90 degrees
doors continued
Doors Continued
  • Egress doors shall be side-hinged swinging.
  • Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving an occupant load of 50
  • In Group E with an occupant load of 100 or more a door shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware
doors continued102
Doors Continued
  • Egress door shall be readily openable without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort
  • Doors in rated corridors shall be automatic or self closing
doors continued103
Doors Continued
  • Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted


The inactive leaf on a pair of doors serving storage or equipment rooms

Gates serving in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of doors

doors continued104
Doors Continued
  • Where two or more doors are required, they shall remain clear and unobstructed