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The Basic Elements of a Sentence Joachim brought a shy girl to my party . Joachim – noun (proper) and subject of sentence brought – verb (past tense of to bring ) a – article (indefinite) shy – adjective girl – noun and object to – preposition (introduces prepositional phrase)

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the basic elements of a sentence
The Basic Elements of a Sentence

Joachim brought a shy girl to my party.

  • Joachim – noun (proper) and subject of sentence
  • brought – verb (past tense of to bring)
  • a – article (indefinite)
  • shy – adjective
  • girl – noun and object
  • to – preposition (introduces prepositional phrase)
  • my – possessive pronoun (first person)
  • party - noun
subject and predicate
Subject and Predicate

Joachim brought a shy girl to my party.

  • subject of the sentence: Joachim
  • predicate of the sentence: brought a shy girl to my party
  • With a subject and a predicate, we have a CLAUSE; An independent clause can form a SIMPLE SENTENCE.
the simple sentence
The Simple Sentence
  • one independent clause (subject and predicate)
  • Dogs bite.
  • All of the students tried to understand the strangely unfamiliar grammar lesson.
the compound sentence
The Compound Sentence
  • two or more independent clauses
  • joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so)
  • Dogs bite, but they are still better than cats.
  • I call her all the time, yet she never calls back.
  • The street was empty, and popcorn is inexpensive.
the compound sentence ii
The Compound Sentence II
  • two or more closely-related independent clauses
  • joined by a semi-colon
  • Their presentation was interesting; ours was riveting.
  • I do not like coffee; I love it.
the complex sentence
The Complex Sentence
  • at least one independent clause and a dependent (subordinate) clause
  • joined by a subordinating conjunction
  • after, although, because, if, once, since, unless, when, while . . . (dozens)
  • Anna holds her breath until she gets her way.
  • If Mohammad tries to hold his breath, he goes unconscious.
the compound complex sentence
The Compound-Complex Sentence
  • at least two independent clauses and a dependent clause
  • Pei laughed when Ali tripped; Ali did not laugh at all.
  • Since we could not see into the bear’s den, we were not sure it was empty, so we waited.
the comma
The Comma
  • I knew I was going to be late, so I went back to sleep.
  • The required subjects are mathematics, physics, and English.
  • I find that a shower a day, whether I need it or not, helps to keep my friendships intact.
  • Although quiet by day, the club became a noisy, smoky dive at night.
  • He said, “I really like your hair like that!”
the semi colon
The Semi-colon
  • I’m too tired; however, I will try to stay awake.
  • We should eat more legumes, such as chickpeas; fruit, including tomatoes; and grains, such as barley.
the colon
The Colon
  • Eventually, only one thing occupied my every thought: eating.
  • We do not need to think about many bodily functions: digestion, respiration, and blood circulation, for example.
  • He said the wrong thing: “Your hair looks cute!”
the apostrophe
The Apostrophe

Apostrophe Protection Society (U.K.)

  • use the apostrophe to form possessives
  • use the apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters