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Rhetoric and Visual Rhetoric for Professional Writers Using Rhetorical Principles and Art / Design Theory to Analyze Images What is Rhetoric? ? Rhetoric The Art of Persuasion The Arts and Rules of Effective Communication

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rhetoric and visual rhetoric for professional writers

Rhetoric and Visual Rhetoric for Professional Writers

Using Rhetorical Principles and Art / Design Theory to Analyze Images

rhetoric
Rhetoric
  • The Art of Persuasion
  • The Arts and Rules of Effective Communication
  • Aristotle: “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.”
  • The Art of Speaking and Writing Effectively.
the five canons or parts of rhetoric
The Five Canons or Parts of Rhetoric
  • Invention inventio heurisis
  • Arrangement dispositio taxis
  • Style elocutio lexis
  • Memory memoria mneme
  • Delivery actio hypocrisis
the 3 rhetorical questions
The 3 Rhetorical Questions
  • Who is speaking to whom?
  • For what ostensible purpose?
  • Through what mask?
audience analysis
Audience Analysis
  • Who are my readers?
    • What do they know?
    • What do they need?
  • What are my readers’ purposes?
    • Information?
    • Online shopping?
    • Customer Service?
    • Interactive Order Forms?
visual rhetoric visual literacy
Visual Rhetoric & Visual Literacy

Ability to “unpack” images by using principles from:

Classical Rhetoric

Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception

Principles from Art / Design Theory

Color

Line

Shape

Spatial relationships

visual rhetoric visual literacy8
Visual Rhetoric & Visual Literacy

Understanding how to analyze images and their effect on viewers leads to the ability to manipulate images – figures, photographs, drawings, graphs – and the visual display of documents, so that you can effectively get your message across, so that you can persuade your audience to accept your point of view.

gestalt principles
Gestalt Principles
  • Figure/Ground Segregation
  • Symmetry
  • Proximity
  • Closure
art design theory
Art / Design Theory
  • Unity
    • Often achieved by repetition of color and shape
  • Emphasis or Focus
    • Where your eye is immediately drawn to
  • Balance
    • Symmetrical & Asymmetrical
  • Visual Rhythm
    • The “pattern” your eye makes as it moves from area to area on a visual field
metaphorical code of color
Metaphorical Code of Color
  • Hot and warm colors -- those toward the Red end of the spectrum convey different emotional associations from
  • Cold and cool colors -- those toward the Blue end
  • Each color has negative and positive pathetic / emotional associations
spatial relationships affect
Spatial Relationships & Affect
  • Triangular Relationships
    • Spirituality, aspiration
  • Rectangular or 4-square
    • Stability, groundedness, earthiness
  • Circular Relationships
    • Movement, fluidity, dynamism, completeness
line emotional impact
Line & Emotional Impact
  • Vertical Lines
    • Strength, Power, Aspiration
  • Horizontal Lines
    • Calmness, Balance, Repose, Groundedness
  • Diagonal Lines
    • Tension, Movement, Direction
  • Real, Implied, Perspective, Gestural
  • Circular
    • Movement, Unity, Dynamism
search for a universal grammar of color and shape
Search for a Universal Grammar of Color and Shape

Match the Primary Colors –

Red, Blue, Yellow,

With the Primary Shapes –

Circle, Triangle, Square

Kandinsky felt there must be some intrinsic match up – some universal code

the four contents
The Four Contents
  • Formal Content

Line, Color, Shape, Texture, Spatial Relations

  • Narrative Content

Story, Allegory

  • Rhetorical Content

Aristotle’s Appeals, 3 rhetorical questions

  • Expressive Content

Combined effect of 1, 2, and 3. Effect upon viewer

effective communication for the 21st century
Effective Communication for the 21st Century
  • Principles of Document Design
    • Technical Writing Studies
  • Principles from Art Theory
    • Color, Form, Spatial Arrangement
  • Principles from Rhetoric
    • The Rhetorical Situation
    • Aristotle’s Appeals
  • New Rhetorical Principles Will Evolve from the Old