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Overview of Carbohydrate Metabolism:. The importance of regulating blood glucose levels. Glucose: Obligate fuel for CNS & RBC’s. CNS/Brain Dependent on glucose as primary source of fuel Uses ~120g glucose/day of total 160-200 g/d RBC Dependent on glucose Lack mitochondria.

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overview of carbohydrate metabolism

Overview of Carbohydrate Metabolism:

The importance of regulating blood glucose levels.

glucose obligate fuel for cns rbc s
Glucose:Obligate fuel for CNS & RBC’s
  • CNS/Brain
    • Dependent on glucose as primary source of fuel
      • Uses ~120g glucose/day of total 160-200 g/d
  • RBC
    • Dependent on glucose
    • Lack mitochondria
regulation of blood glucose levels insulin
Regulation of blood glucose levelsInsulin

Anabolic in response to hyperglycemia

  • Liver
    • Stimulates glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid synthesis
  • Muscle
    • Stimulates glycogen synthesis
  • Adipose
    • Stimulates lipoprotein lipase resulting in uptake of fatty acids from chylomicrons and VLDL
    • Stimulates glycolysis for glycerol phosphate synthesis (precurser to triglycerides)
regulation of blood glucose levels glucagon
Regulation of blood glucose levelsGlucagon
  • Catabolic, in response to hypoglycemia
  • Liver
    • Activates glycogen degradation, gluconeogenesis
  • Adipose
    • Stimulates lipolysis and release of fatty acids
diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
  • A multi-organ catabolic response caused by insulin insufficiency
  • Muscle
    • Protein catabolism for gluconeogenesis
  • Adipose
    • Lipolysis for fatty acid release
  • Liver
    • Ketogenesis from fatty acid oxidation
    • Gluconeogenesis from amino acids and glycerol
  • Kidney
    • Ketonuria and cation excretion
      • Renal ammoniagenesis (NH4+, cation excreted with KB)
glucose toxicity
Glucose Toxicity
  • Diabetic complications
  • Glycosylation of Protein
    • Reaction of glucose to amino groups
    • May be related to pathologic changes in eye, peripheral nerves, kidneys
    • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
  • Polyol formation
    • Sorbitol production from aldol reductase
    • Accumulation of sorbitol results in osmotic changes and cataracts in the lens