Bacterial Metabolism and Energy Generation. An Overview of Metabolism. Metabolism – the sum of all chemical reactions occurring within a cell simultaneously. Involves degradation and biosynthesis of complex molecules.
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Microorganisms are catabolically diverse, but are anabolically quite uniform
Amphibolic pathways function both catabolically and anabolically, and sometimes employ separate enzymes to catalyze the forward and reverse reactions; this separation enables independent regulation of the forward and reverse reactions
A metabolic sequence of reactions occurring within a membrane in which an electrons transferred from a reduced coenzyme by a series of electron carriers, establishing an electrochemical gradient across the membrane that drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate by chemiosmosis.
Powered by redox reactions
Aerobic respiration uses O2 as TEA
Anaerobic respiration uses SO42-, NO3-, CO2 as TEA (not as efficient as using O2 as TEA)
A series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which electrons are transported from a substrate through a series of intermediate electron carriers to a final acceptor, establishing an electrochemical gradient across a membrane that results in the formation of ATP.
Electrochemical gradient = proton motive force
Examples of donors = coenzymes NADH, NADPH, and FADH2 --> often referred to as “reducing power”