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AS Level Anatomy and Physiology. Muscles and Movement. 3 types of muscle. Cardiac – where found? Smooth – where found? Skeletal – attaches to and moves the skeleton, it is the only type of muscle under our voluntary control. The Heart. The walls of hollow organs. Task .

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muscles and movement

AS Level

Anatomy and Physiology

Muscles and Movement

3 types of muscle
3 types of muscle
  • Cardiac – where found?
  • Smooth – where found?
  • Skeletal– attaches to and moves the skeleton, it is the only type of muscle under our voluntary control

The Heart

The walls of hollow organs

  • Using the textbook to help, can you label the diagram on worksheet 2.1.
  • You should also complete the table indicating the joints crossed by each muscle.
some key terms
Some key terms
  • ORIGIN– point of attachment that remains fixed during muscle contraction.
  • INSERTION– point of attachment that moves towards the origin during muscle contraction.
Agonist / prime mover –

muscle directly responsible for the movement at a joint.

  • Antagonist – muscle that has the opposite action to the agonist.
  • Fixator– muscle that stabilisesthe origin to allow the agonist to work efficiently.
  • Look at the table at the top of page 21 showing muscle function for flexion of the elbow.
  • How would the roles of the muscles change for extension of the elbow?

The biceps brachiicontracting

  • Muscles cannot push, they can only pull.
  • Muscles are arranged in pairs, so whatever movement one muscle can do, it will have a partner to reverse it.
  • These are called

antagonistic muscle pairs.

We will now identify the movements possible at each joint and the muscles involved in each movement….
  • Cut out a picture of a sports performer in action.
  • Identify the movements occurring at each of the major joints and state the joint name, joint type and the agonist and antagonist muscles for those movements.