Milk production and processing for halal markets
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Milk Production and Processing for Halal Markets. Dr. M. Afzal Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad. Quran on Milk.

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Milk production and processing for halal markets

Milk Production and Processing for Halal Markets

Dr. M. Afzal

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council


Quran on milk
Quran on Milk

“And no doubt, there is a lesson for you in the cattle, we give you to drink of what is in their bellies from between dung and the blood, milk pure, that is pleasant for the drinkers”


“And undoubtedly in the cattle, there is a lesson for you, we give you to drink of what is in their bellies and you have in them many benefits and of them you have your food”


Dairy production systems
Dairy Production Systems

  • Extensive farming

    • Desert /nomads (Cholistan)

  • Intensive farming

    • Dairy colonies (urban dairying)

  • Agro-livestock mixed farming

    • Rural subsistence small holdings

    • Rural market oriented small holdings

    • Rural commercial farming

Milk as a product
Milk as a Product

  • Wholesome

  • Healthy

  • Halal

    Practically means ….

  • Provides the required nutrition

  • Does not contribute to food borne illnesses

  • Free from inherent pathogens

  • No outgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms

  • Free from residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides and other chemical contaminants

  • Conforms to Islamic standards

Principles for production and processing of milk
Principles for Production and Processing of Milk

  • Production to consumption of milk should be subjected to a combination of control measures, and these measures should be shown to achieve appropriate level of public health protection and islamic values

  • Good hygienic practices should be applied throughout the food chain for safety and suitability of milk

  • Whenever appropriate, hygienic practices for milk should be implemented within the context of HACCP

  • Control measures should be validated as effective

Role of stakeholders
Role of Stakeholders

  • Producers – good agricultural, hygienic and animal husbandry practices; adapted as per requirements and communicated by the processor

  • Processor – good manufacturing and hygienic practices; communication with producers; implement controls during the processing; HACCP

  • Distributors, Transporters and Retailers – handling and storing properly and as per processor’s instruction

  • Consumers – handling and storing properly and as per processor’s instruction

  • Government – legislative framework, infrastructure, trained inspectors and personnel, audit relevant documents

Production of clean milk
Production of Clean Milk

  • Environmental hygiene – water, insects, rodents

  • Hygienic production of milk

    • Areas and premises for milk production

    • Animal Health

    • General hygienic practices including feeding, pest control, veterinary drugs

    • Hygienic milking

  • Handling, storage and transport of milk

    • Milking equipment

    • Storage equipment and premises

    • Collection, transport & delivery procedures and equipment

  • Documentation and Record Keeping

Feed ingredients
Feed ingredients

  • Pastures / Rangelands - fertilizer sources, pesticide / herbicides, GMOs

  • Fodder and forages – fresh, silage, hay, fertilizer sources, pesticide / herbicides, GMOs

  • Crop residues – untreated and treated straws

  • Cereal and legume grains – un-processed and processed

  • Crop milling by-products – milling process

  • Industrial by-products – fruit pulp, other drinks, fermentation by-products, urea

  • Slaughterhouse by-products – source of raw material and manufacturing process (MBM, bone meal, blood meal)

  • Fisheries by-products – fish meal

  • Synthetic vitamins and minerals – source of raw material and manufacturing process

Feed additives production enhancers
Feed Additives / Production Enhancers

  • Feed Additives

    • Antibiotics

    • Ionophore

    • Niacin & other vitamins

    • Other Probiotics

    • Buffers

    • DCAD

  • Production Enhancers

    • By-pass proteins and fats

    • Hormones

    • BST

  • Production Practices

    • Reproductive management practices

Processing of milk
Processing of Milk

  • Design and facilities of processing

  • Control of food hazards

    • Hazard identification and evaluation

    • Control measure selection

    • Establishment of process criteria

  • Key aspects of hygienic control system

    • Temperature and time control

    • Management of the product within the plant including incoming milk and intermediate products

    • Distribution of the finished products

    • Establishment of shelf-life

    • Specific process steps

    • Microbiological and other specifications

    • Microbiological cross contamination

    • Physical and chemical contamination

Processing of milk1
Processing of Milk

  • Requirements for incoming materials other than milk

  • Water

  • Maintenance and sanitation

    • Maintenance and cleaning

    • Cleaning programs

  • Personal hygiene

  • Transportation requirements

    • Requirements

    • Use and maintenance of transport

  • Labeling


  • Need to develop detailed guidelines on all aspects of milk production and processing to produce and market wholesome, nutritious and healthy milk and milk products for Halal markets

  • Additions can be made to Guidelines of Codex Alimentarius on milk production and processing incorporating islamic values