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SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 2: A Brief History. Agenda: 1) Review assignment #1 2) History of Terrorism. Review: Terrorism and Early History. Thugs Zealots Assassins French Revolution Early terrorism in the U.S.

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SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISMLesson 2: A Brief History

Agenda:

1) Review assignment #1

2) History of Terrorism

review terrorism and early history
Review: Terrorism and Early History
  • Thugs
  • Zealots
  • Assassins
  • French Revolution
  • Early terrorism in the U.S.
    • “Sons of Liberty” – provoked by Stamp Act, organized mobs to tar and feather colonists still loyal to the king, forcing many to flee the country and settle in Canada
    • Klu Klux Klan – effective in spreading fear; forced federal govt. to end Reconstruction
a brief history of modern terrorism
A Brief History of Modern Terrorism
  • Roughly 130 year history
  • 4 Waves, Each roughly 40-45 years(David Rapoport)
    • Anarchist Wave
    • Anti-Colonial/Decolonization Wave
    • New Left Wave/Leftist anti-Western sentiment
    • Religious Inspiration Wave
  • Issue to consider for each wave:
    • Doctrines of terror
    • Technology (especially for communication/propoganda)
    • Avenues of funding and support
1 anarchist wave
1) Anarchist Wave
  • Roughly 1880s to 1920s
  • Examples:
    • Assassinations of Pres. McKinley, Spanish Prime Minister, etc.
  • Doctrines:
    • Nechaev’s Revolutionary Catechism; Bakunin; Kropotkin’s “propaganda by the deed” – words are not enough . . .
  • Technology:
    • communication and transportation patterns; telegraph; daily newspapers; railroads; technology shrank time and space
    • weapons: mostly guns and knives; but invention of dynamite helped launch new terrorist capabilities
  • Financing:
    • Bank robberies, extortion, etc.
anarchist wave
Anarchist Wave
  • Tsar Alexander II (1861) frees the serfs (1/3 of Russia’s population) and promises funds for them to use to buy land
  • Unable to provide those funds, raised expectations lead to widespread anger, disappointment, unrest; violence, assassinations
  • Terrorists seeking to provoke state to the point where the reaction leads to popular revolt
  • Anarchists seldom successful – but there are exceptions
    • Tsarist Russia, Narodnaya Volya (“people’s will”)
    • Serbia, Narodna Obrana (splinter: Black Hand)
  • Response of several governments was to create plain-clothes police forces (FBI, Scotland Yard, Russian Okhrana, etc.); most are still in action today
  • 1919: President Wilson authorizes round up of all Anarchists; ship to Soviet Union
  • 1920 bombing of Wall Street
2 anti colonial wave
2) Anti-Colonial Wave
  • Circa 1920s – 1960s
  • Examples
    • Irgun (precursor to Lehi), the “Stern Gang” – Zionist extremism
    • South Africa
    • Vietnam?
    • Algeria
  • Doctrines:
    • Freedom for indigenous peoples to decide own system, structure
    • Anti-racism, imperialism; fewer assassinations then previous wave; attacks mainly on police, military, colonial govt. targets
  • Technology:
    • Faster means of communication, transportation, money transfer
  • Financing:
    • Diaspora support, particular from immigrants to developed Western countries
the battle of algiers
The “Battle of Algiers”

Crenshaw case study

  • Political contexts for local support of terrorism?
  • Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies (FLN, ZAA, OAS/French settlers, FFFLN, ALN, etc.)
  • Revolutionary, counter-revolutionary: all terrorists?
  • Remember objective of Narodnaya Volya . . . Did terrorism or state reaction lead to popular insurrection?
  • Description of French counterterrorism measures taken; military response re: Muslim population?
  • Algerian terrorism in France (2nd front)
  • Successes or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change, but what kind?
3 new left wave
3) New Left Wave
  • Circa 1960s – 1990s
  • Examples
    • Italian Red Brigades
    • ETA (Spain, France)
    • LTTE (Sri Lanka)
    • PLO (Middle East)
    • West German RAF (Baader-Meinhof Gang)
    • Japanese Red Army
    • American Weather Underground
    • Peru (Sendero Luminoso)
  • New Doctrines: strategies for political change, Marxism, separatism - Carlos Marighella, Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla
  • Technology:
    • Global sharing of new timing devices, other trigger switches for explosives
    • Airplane hijackings
new left wave
New Left Wave
  • Built on widespread anti-Western political undercurrent throughout former European colonies as well as sentiments within Europe
  • Supported by Vietnam experience
    • Vietcong “David defeats Goliath” idea fuels other groups around the world
  • Anti-Western political movements encouraged by Soviets, Iran, Libya, N. Korea
    • Of course, this came back to bite the Soviets . . .
      • Afghanistan
      • Chechnya
the troubles
The “Troubles”
  • IRA: Anti-colonial, New Left, or something else?
    • Began the struggle during the 1920s
    • Provisional IRA formed 1969; ceasefire 1997
    • “Real IRA” bombings as recent as 2003
    • Loyalists vs. Republicans and Protestants vs. Catholics
  • Jackson case study of PIRA
    • Political contexts for local support of terrorism? (policy, economics)
    • Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies; innovations?
    • Targeting (e.g., mortar attack on 10 Downing street); ‘own goals’
    • Transition in organizational structure – why?
    • Description of the British counterterrorism measures taken
    • Organizational/strategic learning, evolution
    • Successes or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change?
the shining path
The “Shining Path”
  • Extreme left revolutionary ideology (a flavor of Maoism); called themselves Communist Party of Peru
  • A “people’s war” of attrition; goal is to “liberate” the common Peruvian from exploitation by the elites, and delegitimize the central government; focus 1st on rural areas
  • 1980-1992 – over 25,000 incidents; 23,000 killed; Drug trade
  • Government responses validated claims made by Sendero
  • Palmer case study
    • Political contexts for local support of terrorism? (isolation, poverty)
    • Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies (cult of personality)
    • Description of the counterterrorism measures taken
    • Successes or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change?
the farc
The FARC
  • Extreme left revolutionary ideology
  • Focus: delegitimize the central government; focus 1st on rural areas
  • Drug trade
  • Reflections on Ortiz case study?
4 religious inspiration wave
4) Religious Inspiration Wave
  • Current wave of terrorism
  • Religious Cults (e.g., Aum Shinrikyo)
  • Christian extremists
  • Islamist extremists – Jihad
    • Iran – 1979 revolution
    • Afghanistan – 1980s Jihad to oust the Soviets
    • Iraq – 2003-? Jihad to oust the Americans
  • Doctrines:
    • Fatwas against the West; oust them from holy lands; late 1990s shift from near enemy to far enemy
  • Technology:
    • Increasing sophistication of IEDs;
    • Use of “ultimate smart bomb” (suicide terrorists)
    • Weapons of Mass Disruption
hamas
Hamas
  • Role of social welfare, education, religion, social networks
  • Role of Israeli occupation of Gaza, West Bank, etc.
  • Reflections on Cragin case study?

Jemmah Islamiya

  • Role of education, social networks, religion, al Qaeda connection
  • Role of Indonesia’s government, geography, society
  • Reflections on Ramakrishna case study?
religious inspiration wave islamic extremism
Religious Inspiration Wave – Islamic Extremism
  • Islam is fastest growing religion in U.S. & elsewhere; estimated over 1.2 billion followers worldwide.
  • More than a religion: a system of laws, courts, traditions, customs, etc. to govern all aspects of life
  • “Islam is the answer” – Muslim Brotherhood
  • Difference in relationship w/God
  • Lack of formal hierarchy (no “Pope”)
  • Sunni-Shia split; Shiites reject the “truth” held by Sunnis
role of islam in society
Role of Islam in Society
  • In the Islamic way of thinking religion is related to politics - but this does not mean man does not need the rationality of modern science
  • Instead, it means that a devoted religious man should try to co-ordinate his political reactions with his religious values.
  • DR MOHSEN KADIVAR, Iranian cleric
role of islam in society18
Role of Islam in Society
  • “In the Islamic system of values and from the point of view of Muslim fundamentalists, religion cannot be separated from any aspect of life.”
  • “Religion is omnipresent in every aspect of a Muslim individual's private and social life from the economy to social relations.”
  • “What does harm to the society is not religion - it is the way in which some of the rulers take advantage of religion”

DR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian cleric

slide20

Revolutionary Art

"The Vampires of the West and East all feeding on the Muslim Ummah."

radical islam
Radical Islam

Bernard Lewis:

- Who did this to us?

- Blaming the West vs. corrupt regimes vs. each other

- Islam and liberal democracy - compatible?

Communication Filters vis-à-vis West . . .

radical islam23
Radical Islam

The radical neo-fundamentalists view the action as more important than the result. Thus, individual jihad becomes more important than victory. The goal is to serve God, not to achieve a certain political agenda. The results will come when God wills it.

- Magnus Norell

reminder domestic terrorism in the u s
Reminder: Domestic Terrorism in the U.S.
  • Militias
  • Oklahoma
  • Any separatists?
  • Policy terrorists
    • Abortion
    • Environmental
history discussion questions
History: Discussion Questions
  • What patterns and trends of historical terrorism inform our understanding of future threats?
    • C2
    • Strategic goals, objectives
    • Weapons, tactics
    • Targeting
    • Fundraising/Friendraising
    • Similar outcomes re: group existence, changes in political environment
    • What else?
  • Future projections?
    • Who will likely turn to terrorism, and why?
history discussion questions27
History: Discussion Questions
  • Why do people resort to violence in pursuit of political or ideological ends?
    • Political contexts
    • Social contexts
    • Other options to achieve goals?
    • Implications for government policy?
history discussion questions28
History: Discussion Questions
  • What motivates terrorists?
    • Vision - “shape the future”
    • Power to achieve vision
    • Belief in higher cause
    • What else?
  • What role do economics, psychology, sociology or other grievances play in motivating terrorist groups?
history discussion questions29
History: Discussion Questions
  • What can we learn from historical examples of state response to terrorist organizations?
    • What works?
    • What doesn’t?
    • Why?