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Implicit memory Schacter article distinguishes between implicit and explicit memory it surveys historical observations regarding implicit memory then it reviews more recent research and theoretical accounts Implicit memory implicit memory

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Implicit memory

  • Schacter article distinguishes between implicit and explicit memory

  • it surveys historical observations regarding implicit memory

  • then it reviews more recent research and theoretical accounts


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Implicit memory

  • implicit memory

    • occurs when previous experiences facilitate performance on a task that does not require conscious recollection of those experiences

  • explicit memory

    • occurs when the task requires conscious recollection of past experiences


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Implicit memory

  • Historical survey

    • Maine de Biran proposed that after sufficient repetition a habit can be executed automatically and unconsciously without awareness of the act itself or of the previous episodes in which the habit was learned

    • Maine de Biran also developed a form of multiple memory system


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Implicit memory

  • Historical survey

    • Carpenter (1874) noted the importance of autobiographical recognition or awareness in normal memory

    • Neurology

      • Korsakoff noted that amnesic patients were affected by previously experienced events even though they were consciously unaware of these events

      • Claparede refusal of amnesic to shake hands after he had pricked her hand


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Implicit memory

  • Historical survey

    • Neurology

      • Schneider 1912 showed that amnesics required less information across learning trials to identify fragmented pictures


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Implicit memory

  • Historical survey

    • Psychiatry

      • Freud and Janet investigated patients suffering hysterical amnesia as a result of emotional trauma

      • these patients could not explicitly remember the traumatic event, but their memories of these events were expressed indirectly (implicitly)

      • Janet --hysterical amnesia consists of: 1. the inability of a subject to evoke memories consciously and voluntarily; and 2. Automatic, compelling, and untimely activation of these memories


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Implicit memory

  • Modern research on implicit memory

    • effects of subliminally encoded stimuli

      • several studies have shown that stimuli that are not represented in subjective awareness (consciously) are nevertheless processed to high levels by the perceptual system


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Implicit memory

  • e.g., Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc (1980)

    • presented geometric shapes for 1 ms; claimed it was too brief a period of time to permit its perception; subsequently tested recognition (forced choice) and preference (forced choice)

    • Results: RN was at chance; Subjects preferred the previously presented geometric shape


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Implicit memory

  • e.g., Bargh & Pietromonaco (1982)

    • presented ‘hostile words’ and then later had participants rate a target person

    • results showed that explicit recognition memory of ‘hostile words’ was at chance, although ratings of the target person were more negative than those who did not receive prior exposure

    • e.g., divided attention study of Eich (1984)


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Implicit memory

  • e.g., divided attention study of Eich (1984)

    • auditory divided attention task

    • unattended channel -- presented homophones (e.g., taxi fare)

    • subsequently participants showed no explicit RN memory in yes/no task, but tended to spell homophones in biased direction compared to baseline performance


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Implicit memory

  • Learning and conditioning without awareness

    • participants learn rules or contingencies without explicit memory for them

    • this phenomenon was studied in multitrial learning experiments and in classical conditioning experiments


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Implicit memory

  • Implicit learning studies of Reber

    • subjects were presented letter strings that were organized according to rules of an artificial grammar

    • Reber reported that subjects could categorize these strings correctly even though they were unable to consciously aware of the rules


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

    • facilitation in processing of a stimulus as a function of recent prior exposure to the same stimulus

    • note: repetition priming has been observed under a wide variety of test conditions, none of which require explicit reference to a prior study episode

    • lexical decision (word/nonword) -- DV = latency

    • word identification

    • word stem or fragment completion (e.g., __ ss__ss__)


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 1. used to study nature of lexical representation

    • e.g., studied the effects of auditory presentation on subsequent word identification and lexical decision tasks

    • results showed little or no priming

    • e.g., morphologically similar words (e.g., seen) facilitate priming of (sees), but visually similar words do not prime each other (e.g., seen) versus (seed)


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 2. used to study relation of implicit to explicit memory

  • stimulated by studies of Warrington and Weiskrantz on amnesics

  • this study showed that amnesics showed excellent retention when they were asked to complete three-letter stems of recently presented words even though their yes/no recognition memory was impaired


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 2. used to study relation of implicit to explicit memory

    • several studies have shown that variations in level or type of study processing have differential effects on priming versus remembering

    • e.g., Jacoby & Dallas (1981) showed that answering questions about the meaning of a target word improved yes/no recognition memory relative to answering questions about presence of a letter, but that word identification was unaffected


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 2. used to study relation of implicit to explicit memory

    • modality shift

    • Jacoby & Dallas (1981) showed that changing from auditory (at study) to visual (at test) severely attenuated priming effects as assessed by word identification, but had little effect on yes/no recognition performance


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 2. used to study relation of implicit to explicit memory

    • other factors that have been manipulated

    • study-test delay--variable effects

    • manipulations that affect retroactive and proactive interference (and hence explicit memory) have little effect on word-stem or word fragment completion


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Implicit memory

  • Repetition priming effects

  • 2. used to study relation of implicit to explicit memory

    • other factors that have been manipulated

    • study-test delay--variable effects

    • manipulations that affect retroactive and proactive interference (and hence explicit memory) have little effect on word-stem or word fragment completion


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Implicit memory

  • Aside

    • A more recent study


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Full vs. Divided Attention Effects on Implicit and Explicit Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

Norman W. Park, Zahra Hussain, & Jill B. Rich


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Evaluative Processes: A Neuropsychological Perspective Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Importance of evaluative processes for social interaction and problem solving

    • Focal orbitofrontal brain damage (e.g., Damasio)

    • Traumatic brain injury (e.g., Eslinger)

    • Frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (e.g., Hodges)


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Evaluative Processes: A Neuropsychological Perspective Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Proposed a dual process model of evaluative processing (Park et al.)

    • Automatic and controlled processes

    • Automatic process operates independently of controlled process

    • Mediated by neurologically distinct regions


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Purpose of Current Study Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • To investigate the underlying components associated with automatic and controlled evaluative processing of stimuli


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Mere Exposure Effect Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Mere exposure effect (MEE)

    • An increased evaluative preference for recently presented stimuli

    • Robust phenomenon observed under a broad range of conditions

    • Observed with novel but not familiar stimuli


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Mere Exposure Effect, cont. Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Mere exposure effect (MEE)

    • Found under supraliminal and subliminal presentation conditions for novel stimuli

    • Mediated by automatic processes involving a form of implicit memory


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Explicit associative evaluative memory Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Evidence suggests that storing and retrieving this type of memory requires controlled processing


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Experimental strategy Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Dividing attention should disrupt controlled evaluative processing more than automatic evaluative processing


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Hypotheses Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • Dividing attention should

    • not influence the MEE (automatic)

    • decrease explicit memory for evaluative information (controlled)

  • Number of presentations should

    • increase explicit memory performance

    • no strong prediction for MEE


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Hypotheses Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • MEEs should occur with:

    • Positive and negative stimuli

    • Novel stimuli (faces)

  • MEEs should not occur with:

    • Familiar stimuli (words)


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Participants Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • 48 participants

  • Ages 16-29

  • Excluded if regularly plays an instrument requiring rapid finger movements


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Materials Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

  • 32 neutral-valence faces randomly paired with 32 personality attributes (words)

  • Half the attributes had positive valence (e.g., honest, optimistic)

  • Half had negative valence (e.g., malicious, jealous)


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Design Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

Between-subjects factors

  • Attention (full, divided)

  • Number of presentations (1, 3)

  • Within-subjects factors

    • Stimulus type (face, word)

    • Valence (positive, negative)

    • Test (likeability rating, recognition)

    • Test item status (old, new)


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    Study Procedure Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

    • Face (visual) word (oral) pairs presented at a 5-second rate

    • Divided attention condition

      • Tapped fingers in order of ring, index, middle, little

    • Full attention condition

      • No tapping


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    Test Procedure Retrieval of Evaluative Memories

    • 3-minute delay after study

    • Yes/no recognition memory and likeability ratings of faces & words

    • Test order of faces and words counterbalanced across participants


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    Face Recognition as a Function of Attention and Number of Presentations

    Hits Minus False Alarms

    1 Presentation

    3 Presentations


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    Full Attention Divided Attention Presentations

    1 Pres 3 Pres 1 Pres 3 Pres


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    Full Attention Divided Attention Presentations

    1 Pres 3 Pres 1 Pres 3 Pres


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    Attribute Recognition as a Function of Attention and Number of Presentations

    Hits Minus False Alarms

    1 Presentation

    3 Presentations


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    Preference Ratings of Presentationsof Attributes

    Positive Negative


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    Summary of Presentations

    • Dissociation between recognition memory and likeability ratings

      • Recognition memory for faces and attributes higher for:

        • 3 > 1 presentation

        • Full > divided attention

      • MEE for faces and attributes unaffected by these 2 factors


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    Summary of Presentations

    • MEE observed both when valence is positive and negative

    • MEE observed both with novel stimuli (faces) and with familiar stimuli (words)


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    Discussion of Presentations

    • Results generally support the hypothesis that different processes mediate the evaluation or affective processing and memory for stimulus information

    • Investigating the factor(s) responsible for the MEE with familiar stimuli


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Implicit memory in amnesia

      • produced by lesions to diencephalic and medial temporal lobe lesions

      • pure amnesics have normal perceptual, linguistic, and intellectual functioning

      • unable to remember explicitly recent events and new information

      • however, amnesics have relatively normal skill learning and repetition priming, both forms of implicit memory


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Implicit memory in amnesia

      • skill learning: Milner, Corkin and others have demonstrated that amnesics are able to learn pursuit motor learning and mirror tracing

      • other skills that amnesics can acquire include: rule learning, reading mirror-inverted script


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Implicit memory in amnesia:repetition priming

    • classic study Warrington & Weiskrantz

    • this study showed that amnesics showed excellent retention when they were asked to complete three-letter stems of recently presented words even though their yes/no recognition memory and free recall memory was impaired


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • instructions important: Graf & Mandler 1984

      • showed that when amnesics are presented word stems as retrieval cues, and explicitly instructed to remember previously studied words -- they are impaired in their recall relative to normal controls

      • in contrast levels of implicit memory performance-- complete stem with first word that comes to mind -- are equivalent for the two groups


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Theoretical accounts

      • threshold account

        • 1 memory store account in which implicit memories are postulated to represent faint memory traces

        • Evidence against: statistical independence; differential effects of certain encoding manipulations on explicit and implicit memories


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Theoretical accounts

      • activation account

        • implicit memory effects are attributable to temporary activation of preexisting representations (e.g., logogens)


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Theoretical accounts

      • processing account

        • explicit and implicit memories rely on newly established episodic representations; difference between the two types of memories depends upon different processing demands placed by the two types of tests

        • implicit memory is data driven, whereas explicit memory is conceptually driven; conceptually driven processes guided by subject-driven activities, whereas data driven processes are driven by information present in the test stimuli


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Theoretical accounts

      • multiple memory system

        • differences between implicit and explicit memory reflect differences between different memory systems

        • e.g., Squire: explicit memory is a form of declarative memory; implicit memory is a form of procedural memory

        • e.g., Tulving: episodic memory mediates explicit memory; implicit memory effects are mediated by semantic memory


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    Implicit of Presentations

    Memory

    Explicit

    Memory

    Priming

    Nonassociative

    Learning

    Neocortex

    Reflex Pathways

    Facts

    (Semantic

    Memory)

    Events

    (Episodic

    Memory)

    Skills and

    Habits

    Simple

    Classical

    Conditioning

    Striatum

    Medial Temporal Lobe

    Emotional

    Response

    Skeletal

    Musculature

    Amygdala

    Cerebellum

    Squire and Knowlton (1994)

    [Squire (1987): Declarative vs. procedural memory]


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Strengths and weakness of Theoretical accounts

      • Activation

        • accounts for finding that priming does not depend upon elaborative processing

        • amnesics show normal priming with pre-existing memory representations (e.g., familiar words, idioms) but not with unfamiliar materials


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Strengths and weakness of Theoretical accounts

      • Activation

        • problems for activation

        • finding that amnesics may be able to learn new factual information and new associations under some conditions


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Strengths and weakness of Theoretical accounts

      • processing account

        • accounts for the associative effects, contextual sensitivity, and study-test interactions

        • does not easily account for the importance of pre-existing representations in amnesics

        • does not appear to account for the finding of a lack of conscious recollection of a prior experience at the time of test


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    Implicit memory of Presentations

    • Strengths and weakness of Theoretical accounts

      • multiple memory account

        • accounts most easily for the dissociation between amnesics and unimpaired findings

        • amnesics can learn new factual information; how is this possible given damaged declarative memory system?