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Juvenile Corrections. Correctional options. Probation Intensive probation Day treatment Group homes Wilderness programs Foster care Shelter care. Correctional options. Boot camps House arrest/home detention Electronic monitoring Restitution/community service

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Correctional options
Correctional options

  • Probation

  • Intensive probation

  • Day treatment

  • Group homes

  • Wilderness programs

  • Foster care

  • Shelter care


Correctional options1
Correctional options

  • Boot camps

  • House arrest/home detention

  • Electronic monitoring

  • Restitution/community service

  • Residential: state and private

  • Legal issues

  • Treatment


Community corrections
Community corrections

  • Probation

  • Differs from adult system in terms of:

  • Indeterminate nature

  • Use of formal and informal probation (not allowed with adults)

  • Use of probation with status offenses

  • Greater role at earlier stages of the process


Probation organization
Probation organization

  • Administered by:

  • Centralized statewide system

  • County or city, partial state

  • Combined—largest city has its own, state runs the rest

  • Locally and judicially administered (traditional—about 60% are administered this way)


Probation
Probation

  • Debate about organization

  • Administered locally and judicially: advantages are (1) prestige of judges

  • (2) judicial immunity for officers

  • (3) flexible, more discretion

  • (4) better cooperation between officers and judges


Probation1
Probation

  • Statewide:

  • (1) more uniformity of services, less political allocation of funds based on judge’s clout

  • Overall standards and training, better dissemination of information

  • Set up for services


Probation2
Probation

  • National advisory Commission suggested that probation should be state run, but with juvenile intake officers under court administration

  • Training and education of juvenile probation officers

  • Conditions of probation: reasonable, relevant and constitutional


Probation programs
Probation programs

  • Intensive supervision

  • Classification into levels of supervision, use of risk factors

  • Avoidance of net widening

  • Appear to be as effective as residential treatment at less cost


Probation programs1
Probation programs

  • Home detention, house arrest

  • “passive system” home is called periodically, youth must be there (some systems relatively sophisticated

  • More likely to be used if parents are perceived as cooperative

  • “active system: electronic monitoring (EM)


Probation programs2
Probation programs

  • Recidivism rates similar to those of residential programs, costs are significantly less, reduces residential overcrowding

  • Felony offenders, substance abusers and repeat offenders did more poorly with EM

  • The longer the sentence, failure more likely


Probation programs3
Probation programs

  • Wilderness/Outward Bound programs

  • Strip them from city environment, physical and psychological challenges; confrontational style

  • VisionQuest, (wagon trains) Associated Marine Institutes

  • Short term reductions in recidivism among well run programs


Probation programs4
Probation programs

  • Day treatment

  • Structured activities during the day, return to home during the evening

  • Cheaper than residential, works well if the family is not too dysfunctional


Foster care
Foster care

  • Family paid by the state to board an abused, status offender, or delinquent child

  • Often from lower class deprived families, chaotic environment

  • Parents may be mentally ill, addicts, or in prison, likely to have been abuse and neglect


Foster care1
Foster care

  • Those who are a threat to others, incorrigible, or antisocial runaways do not do well in foster care

  • Foster homes must be licensed—adequate space, nutritious meals, good reputation in the community


Problems of foster parents
Problems of foster parents

  • Frequent crises

  • Dealing with the biological parent

  • Older children may be out of control

  • Most suffering from emotional problems

  • Might treat foster children differently from their own, creating conflicts

  • Some foster parents not well trained; become punitive


Foster parents
Foster parents

  • Foster parents might become attached, find it difficult to give a child up

  • Foster care is difficult to monitor

  • Sometime it could be avoided if other services were available (homemaker, daycare, etc, treatment facilities that allow children)

  • Foster children display more problems


Boot camps
Boot camps

  • Combine boot camp drill and education, substance abuse treatment, social skills training

  • Short term improvements in personality measures, less antisocial, educational levels

  • Little effect on recidivism

  • Might reduce overcrowding, costs (if net widening is avoided)


Restitution community service
Restitution/community service

  • Rehabilitative, restitution provides compensation to victims, saves money

  • Community service also might be rehabilitative, provides services to community that otherwise might not be available

  • Most orders are completed, recidivism a little lower


Group homes
Group homes

  • Non-secure structured residences

  • Public and private

  • Halfway-in, halfway out

  • Usually around 12 youths

  • Residents: most are 16-18, more likely to be middle class, status offenders or property offenders, multiple family problems


Group homes1
Group homes

  • Family group home vs. staffed group home, or combination

  • Group homes somewhat selective

  • Vary in terms of population (some take certain types of youths), length of stay, screening, treatment, staffing and physical facility


Group homes2
Group homes

  • Youths are in school. Some large group homes have their own school

  • In most instances, youths attend a local school. A criteria for admittance is often whether the youth can behave in school

  • Group homes in Massachusetts


Group homes3
Group homes

  • Highfields projects: lower recidivism rates, concluded that it was as effective as a training school, and less expensive to operate

  • Silverlake experiment: compared group home attendees, one group received GGI, the other did not. Both groups showed declines in delinquency


Group homes4
Group homes

  • Project New Pride: emphasis on academic skills and vocational training

  • Successful programs:

  • Address a variety of skills

  • Have intensive contacts (group therapy)

  • Socially grounded approach