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Juvenile Corrections. Correctional options. Probation Intensive probation Day treatment Group homes Wilderness programs Foster care Shelter care. Correctional options. Boot camps House arrest/home detention Electronic monitoring Restitution/community service

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correctional options
Correctional options
  • Probation
  • Intensive probation
  • Day treatment
  • Group homes
  • Wilderness programs
  • Foster care
  • Shelter care
correctional options1
Correctional options
  • Boot camps
  • House arrest/home detention
  • Electronic monitoring
  • Restitution/community service
  • Residential: state and private
  • Legal issues
  • Treatment
community corrections
Community corrections
  • Probation
  • Differs from adult system in terms of:
  • Indeterminate nature
  • Use of formal and informal probation (not allowed with adults)
  • Use of probation with status offenses
  • Greater role at earlier stages of the process
probation organization
Probation organization
  • Administered by:
  • Centralized statewide system
  • County or city, partial state
  • Combined—largest city has its own, state runs the rest
  • Locally and judicially administered (traditional—about 60% are administered this way)
probation
Probation
  • Debate about organization
  • Administered locally and judicially: advantages are (1) prestige of judges
  • (2) judicial immunity for officers
  • (3) flexible, more discretion
  • (4) better cooperation between officers and judges
probation1
Probation
  • Statewide:
  • (1) more uniformity of services, less political allocation of funds based on judge’s clout
  • Overall standards and training, better dissemination of information
  • Set up for services
probation2
Probation
  • National advisory Commission suggested that probation should be state run, but with juvenile intake officers under court administration
  • Training and education of juvenile probation officers
  • Conditions of probation: reasonable, relevant and constitutional
probation programs
Probation programs
  • Intensive supervision
  • Classification into levels of supervision, use of risk factors
  • Avoidance of net widening
  • Appear to be as effective as residential treatment at less cost
probation programs1
Probation programs
  • Home detention, house arrest
  • “passive system” home is called periodically, youth must be there (some systems relatively sophisticated
  • More likely to be used if parents are perceived as cooperative
  • “active system: electronic monitoring (EM)
probation programs2
Probation programs
  • Recidivism rates similar to those of residential programs, costs are significantly less, reduces residential overcrowding
  • Felony offenders, substance abusers and repeat offenders did more poorly with EM
  • The longer the sentence, failure more likely
probation programs3
Probation programs
  • Wilderness/Outward Bound programs
  • Strip them from city environment, physical and psychological challenges; confrontational style
  • VisionQuest, (wagon trains) Associated Marine Institutes
  • Short term reductions in recidivism among well run programs
probation programs4
Probation programs
  • Day treatment
  • Structured activities during the day, return to home during the evening
  • Cheaper than residential, works well if the family is not too dysfunctional
foster care
Foster care
  • Family paid by the state to board an abused, status offender, or delinquent child
  • Often from lower class deprived families, chaotic environment
  • Parents may be mentally ill, addicts, or in prison, likely to have been abuse and neglect
foster care1
Foster care
  • Those who are a threat to others, incorrigible, or antisocial runaways do not do well in foster care
  • Foster homes must be licensed—adequate space, nutritious meals, good reputation in the community
problems of foster parents
Problems of foster parents
  • Frequent crises
  • Dealing with the biological parent
  • Older children may be out of control
  • Most suffering from emotional problems
  • Might treat foster children differently from their own, creating conflicts
  • Some foster parents not well trained; become punitive
foster parents
Foster parents
  • Foster parents might become attached, find it difficult to give a child up
  • Foster care is difficult to monitor
  • Sometime it could be avoided if other services were available (homemaker, daycare, etc, treatment facilities that allow children)
  • Foster children display more problems
boot camps
Boot camps
  • Combine boot camp drill and education, substance abuse treatment, social skills training
  • Short term improvements in personality measures, less antisocial, educational levels
  • Little effect on recidivism
  • Might reduce overcrowding, costs (if net widening is avoided)
restitution community service
Restitution/community service
  • Rehabilitative, restitution provides compensation to victims, saves money
  • Community service also might be rehabilitative, provides services to community that otherwise might not be available
  • Most orders are completed, recidivism a little lower
group homes
Group homes
  • Non-secure structured residences
  • Public and private
  • Halfway-in, halfway out
  • Usually around 12 youths
  • Residents: most are 16-18, more likely to be middle class, status offenders or property offenders, multiple family problems
group homes1
Group homes
  • Family group home vs. staffed group home, or combination
  • Group homes somewhat selective
  • Vary in terms of population (some take certain types of youths), length of stay, screening, treatment, staffing and physical facility
group homes2
Group homes
  • Youths are in school. Some large group homes have their own school
  • In most instances, youths attend a local school. A criteria for admittance is often whether the youth can behave in school
  • Group homes in Massachusetts
group homes3
Group homes
  • Highfields projects: lower recidivism rates, concluded that it was as effective as a training school, and less expensive to operate
  • Silverlake experiment: compared group home attendees, one group received GGI, the other did not. Both groups showed declines in delinquency
group homes4
Group homes
  • Project New Pride: emphasis on academic skills and vocational training
  • Successful programs:
  • Address a variety of skills
  • Have intensive contacts (group therapy)
  • Socially grounded approach