joint classification synovial joints characteristics of synovial joint types of synovial joints l.
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Joint Classification Synovial Joints Characteristics of synovial joint Types of synovial joints. Joints of the Human Body. Naming Joints: Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb. Joint is a point of connection between two bones

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joint classification synovial joints characteristics of synovial joint types of synovial joints
Joint Classification

Synovial Joints

Characteristics of synovial joint

Types of synovial joints

Joints of the Human Body
  • Naming Joints:
    • Pectoral Girdle
    • Upper Limb
    • Pelvic Girdle
    • Lower Limb
Joint is a point of connection between two bones
  • Strands of connective tissue, ligaments, hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints
joint classification
Joint Classification
  • Joints are classified according to their motion capabilities:
    • Synarthroses
      • Immovable
    • Amphiarthroses
      • Slightly movable
    • Diarthroses
      • Allow the greatest amount of motion
joint classification cont d
Joint Classification Cont’d
  • Joints are further classified by the material that joints them:
    • Fibrous joint
      • Allow no movement
      • E.g. sutures of the scull
    • Cartilaginous joints
      • Allow limited movement
      • E.g. intervertebral discs
    • Synovial joints
      • Allow large range of movements
      • E.g. hip joint
characteristics of synovial joints
Characteristics of Synovial Joints
  • Hyaline cartilage
    • A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers the ends of the articulating bones
  • Joint cavity
  • Synovial membrane
    • Covers joint cavity, except over the surfaces of the articular cartilages
    • Secretes the lubrication fluid
  • Synovial fluid
    • Lubricates the joint
  • Capsule
    • May or may not have thickenings called intrinsic ligaments
  • Extrinsic ligaments
    • Support the joint and connect the articulating bones of the joint
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • There are three basic types of synovial joints:
    • unilateral (rotation only about one axis)
    • biaxial joints (movement about two perpendicular axes)
    • multiaxial joints (movement about all three perpendicular axes)
types of synovial joints cont d
Types of Synovial Joints Cont’d
  • Synovial are further classified into:

1. Hinge Joint

2. Pivot Joint

3. Condyloid Joint

4. Saddle-shaped joint

5. Ball and Socket Joint

6. Plane Joint

1 hinge ginglymus joint
1. Hinge (Ginglymus) Joint
  • Uniaxial
  • Has one articulating surface that is convex, and another that is concave
  • E.g. humero-ulnar elbow joint, interphalangeal joint
pivot joint
Pivot Joint
  • Uniaxial
  • E.g. head of radius rotating against ulna
condyloid knuckle joint
Condyloid (Knuckle) Joint
  • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction)
  • The joint surfaces are usually oval
  • One joint surface is an ovular convex shape, and the other is a reciprocally shaped concave surface
  • E.g. metacarpophalangeal joint
saddle joint
Saddle Joint
  • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction)
  • The bones set together as in sitting on a horse
  • E.g. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
ball and socket joint
Ball and Socket Joint
  • Multiaxial (rotation in all planes)
  • A rounded bone is fitted into a cup=like receptacle
  • E.g. shoulder and hip joints
plane gliding joint
Plane (Gliding) Joint
  • Uniaxial (permits gliding movements)
  • The bone surfaces involved are nearly flat
  • E.g. intercarpal joints and acromioclavicular joint of the vertebrae
sternoclavicular joint
Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Connects the sternum to the clavicle
  • the only joint connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton
  • true synovial joint strengthened by an intracapsular disc and extrinsic ligaments
acromioclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular Joint
  • unites the lateral end of the clavicle with the acromion process of the scapula
  • where shoulder separations often occur in sports such as hockey, baseball, and football
glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral Joint
  • Connects the upper limb and the scapula
  • A typical multiaxial joint
  • has a wide range of movement at this joint
  • compromise = relative lack of stability
elbow joint
Elbow Joint
  • There are three joints at the elbow:
    • humero-ulnar joint
      • medial (with respect to anatomical position)
      • between the trochlea of the humerus and the olecranon process of the ulna
    • humero-radial joint
      • lateral
      • between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius
    • radio-ulnar joint
      • between the radius and the ulna
elbow joint cont d

Humero-Ulnar Joint

Humero-Radial Joint

Radio-Ulnar Joint

Elbow Joint Cont’d




hip joint
Hip Joint

- Between the head of the femur and the cup (acetabulum) of the hip bone (os coxae)

  • Like shoulder joint, hip joint is:
    • ball and socket joint
    • multiaxial joint that allows flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and circumduction
hip joint cont d
Hip Joint Cont’d
  • unlike shoulder joint, hip joint is very stable
  • in fact it is the body’s most stable synovial joint due to:
    • deepened socked (via lip or fibrocartilaginous labrum )
    • an intrinsic and very strong extrinsic ligaments
  • dislocation in sports is not common, but can occur in car collisions
  • dislocate the head posteriorly or drive it through the posterior lip of the actetabulum
knee joint
Knee Joint
  • Tibiofemoral or knee joint
  • incredible range of movement (flexion –extension)
knee joint cont d
Knee Joint Cont’d
  • however, the knee joint is relatively stable due to additional structural supports from:
    • menisci
      • shock-absorbing fibrocartilaginous discs
    • anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
      • in the centre of the joint
    • lateral and medial collateral ligaments
      • extending from the sides of the femur to the tibia and fibula
    • the musculature that surrounds it
knee joint cont d28
Knee Joint Cont’d
  • movements:
    • primary action is flexion-extension (e.g. squat or jump)
    • when flexed, medial and lateral rotation can also occur
ankle joint

Lateral malleolus

Medial malleolus



Ankle Joint
  • talocrural or ankle joint
  • involves several bones:
    • medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
    • head of the talus
    • calcaneus (heel bone)