joint classification synovial joints characteristics of synovial joint types of synovial joints l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Joints of the Human Body PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Joints of the Human Body

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Joints of the Human Body - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 802 Views
  • Uploaded on

Joint Classification Synovial Joints Characteristics of synovial joint Types of synovial joints. Joints of the Human Body. Naming Joints: Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb. Joint is a point of connection between two bones

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Joints of the Human Body' - issac


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
joint classification synovial joints characteristics of synovial joint types of synovial joints
Joint Classification

Synovial Joints

Characteristics of synovial joint

Types of synovial joints

Joints of the Human Body
  • Naming Joints:
    • Pectoral Girdle
    • Upper Limb
    • Pelvic Girdle
    • Lower Limb
slide2
Joint is a point of connection between two bones
  • Strands of connective tissue, ligaments, hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints
joint classification
Joint Classification
  • Joints are classified according to their motion capabilities:
    • Synarthroses
      • Immovable
    • Amphiarthroses
      • Slightly movable
    • Diarthroses
      • Allow the greatest amount of motion
joint classification cont d
Joint Classification Cont’d
  • Joints are further classified by the material that joints them:
    • Fibrous joint
      • Allow no movement
      • E.g. sutures of the scull
    • Cartilaginous joints
      • Allow limited movement
      • E.g. intervertebral discs
    • Synovial joints
      • Allow large range of movements
      • E.g. hip joint
characteristics of synovial joints
Characteristics of Synovial Joints
  • Hyaline cartilage
    • A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers the ends of the articulating bones
  • Joint cavity
  • Synovial membrane
    • Covers joint cavity, except over the surfaces of the articular cartilages
    • Secretes the lubrication fluid
  • Synovial fluid
    • Lubricates the joint
  • Capsule
    • May or may not have thickenings called intrinsic ligaments
  • Extrinsic ligaments
    • Support the joint and connect the articulating bones of the joint
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • There are three basic types of synovial joints:
    • unilateral (rotation only about one axis)
    • biaxial joints (movement about two perpendicular axes)
    • multiaxial joints (movement about all three perpendicular axes)
types of synovial joints cont d
Types of Synovial Joints Cont’d
  • Synovial are further classified into:

1. Hinge Joint

2. Pivot Joint

3. Condyloid Joint

4. Saddle-shaped joint

5. Ball and Socket Joint

6. Plane Joint

1 hinge ginglymus joint
1. Hinge (Ginglymus) Joint
  • Uniaxial
  • Has one articulating surface that is convex, and another that is concave
  • E.g. humero-ulnar elbow joint, interphalangeal joint
pivot joint
Pivot Joint
  • Uniaxial
  • E.g. head of radius rotating against ulna
condyloid knuckle joint
Condyloid (Knuckle) Joint
  • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction)
  • The joint surfaces are usually oval
  • One joint surface is an ovular convex shape, and the other is a reciprocally shaped concave surface
  • E.g. metacarpophalangeal joint
saddle joint
Saddle Joint
  • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction)
  • The bones set together as in sitting on a horse
  • E.g. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
ball and socket joint
Ball and Socket Joint
  • Multiaxial (rotation in all planes)
  • A rounded bone is fitted into a cup=like receptacle
  • E.g. shoulder and hip joints
plane gliding joint
Plane (Gliding) Joint
  • Uniaxial (permits gliding movements)
  • The bone surfaces involved are nearly flat
  • E.g. intercarpal joints and acromioclavicular joint of the vertebrae
sternoclavicular joint
Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Connects the sternum to the clavicle
  • the only joint connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton
  • true synovial joint strengthened by an intracapsular disc and extrinsic ligaments
acromioclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular Joint
  • unites the lateral end of the clavicle with the acromion process of the scapula
  • where shoulder separations often occur in sports such as hockey, baseball, and football
glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral Joint
  • Connects the upper limb and the scapula
  • A typical multiaxial joint
  • has a wide range of movement at this joint
  • compromise = relative lack of stability
elbow joint
Elbow Joint
  • There are three joints at the elbow:
    • humero-ulnar joint
      • medial (with respect to anatomical position)
      • between the trochlea of the humerus and the olecranon process of the ulna
    • humero-radial joint
      • lateral
      • between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius
    • radio-ulnar joint
      • between the radius and the ulna
elbow joint cont d

Humero-Ulnar Joint

Humero-Radial Joint

Radio-Ulnar Joint

Elbow Joint Cont’d

Humerus

Radius

Ulna

hip joint
Hip Joint

- Between the head of the femur and the cup (acetabulum) of the hip bone (os coxae)

  • Like shoulder joint, hip joint is:
    • ball and socket joint
    • multiaxial joint that allows flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and circumduction
hip joint cont d
Hip Joint Cont’d
  • unlike shoulder joint, hip joint is very stable
  • in fact it is the body’s most stable synovial joint due to:
    • deepened socked (via lip or fibrocartilaginous labrum )
    • an intrinsic and very strong extrinsic ligaments
  • dislocation in sports is not common, but can occur in car collisions
  • dislocate the head posteriorly or drive it through the posterior lip of the actetabulum
knee joint
Knee Joint
  • Tibiofemoral or knee joint
  • incredible range of movement (flexion –extension)
knee joint cont d
Knee Joint Cont’d
  • however, the knee joint is relatively stable due to additional structural supports from:
    • menisci
      • shock-absorbing fibrocartilaginous discs
    • anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
      • in the centre of the joint
    • lateral and medial collateral ligaments
      • extending from the sides of the femur to the tibia and fibula
    • the musculature that surrounds it
knee joint cont d28
Knee Joint Cont’d
  • movements:
    • primary action is flexion-extension (e.g. squat or jump)
    • when flexed, medial and lateral rotation can also occur
ankle joint

Lateral malleolus

Medial malleolus

Talus

Calcaneus

Ankle Joint
  • talocrural or ankle joint
  • involves several bones:
    • medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
    • head of the talus
    • calcaneus (heel bone)