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The Human Body. workforce planning. Did you Know??!!. Your brain is 80% water A human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels in their body The lining of your digestive system is shed every 3 days More than half the bones in your body are found in your hands and feet

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the human body

The Human Body

workforce planning

did you know
Did you Know??!!
  • Your brain is 80% water
  • A human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels in their body
  • The lining of your digestive system is shed every 3 days
  • More than half the bones in your body are found in your hands and feet
  • Everyone is color blind at birth
  • 1.7 litres of saliva is produced each day
  • About 8 million blood cells die in the human body every second, and the same number are born each second

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body systems
Body Systems:

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the muscular system

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t r i v i a
  • How many muscles are there in the human body?
  • Answer: 640 Muscles
  • Muscles band together to form muscle groups which work together
  • When the muscles contract, they pull on the tendons which pull on the bones and cause our limbs to move
  • Muscles can be either voluntary or involuntary (consider your arm vs. your heart which beats 60 to 80 beats every minute without you having to think about it!)

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The Muscular System

Functions of the Muscular System


Some involuntary functions of the muscular system are muscles to help you breathe, make your heart beat, and help move food through the digestive system.


Some voluntary functions of the muscular system are like playing piano, running, playing video games, and throwing a ball.




Smooth muscles- acts on the lining of passageways and internal organs.

Skeletal muscles- these are attached to the bone and cause body movements

Cardiac Muscles- is a type of striated muscle that forms the wall of the heart

Problems of the Muscle System

Bruise- is a area of discolored skin that appears after an injury.

Tendonitis- is a inflammation of the tendon, caused by injury or over use aging

Hernia- when a organ or tissue protrudes through an area of weak muscle.

m o r e t r i v i a
  • The longest muscle in the body is ___________
  • Answer- The Sartorius
  • The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards.
  • The smallest muscle in the body is __________
  • Answer- The Stapedius
  • The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing.
  • The biggest muscle in the body is __________
  • Answer- The Gluteus Maximus
  • The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.

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there are about 60 muscles in the face
There are about 60 muscles in the face.

Smiling is easier than frowning.

It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown.

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this will be on your quiz
This will be on your quiz!!

Study all the notes!! & diagrams

the skeletal system
The Skeletal System

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t r i v i a1
  • How many bones are there in the human body?
  • Answer: 206 Bones
  • When you were born, your skeleton had around 350 bones. By the time you become an adult, you will only have 206 bones. This is because, as you grow, some of the bones join together to form one bone.

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The Skeletal System

Functions of Skeleton System

Skeletal system provides a structure for the body. It includes a vertebrae of spine and supports upper body and head.

Types of Bones

Small bones-includes bones in legs

and arms

Short bones-bones in wrist and ankles

Flat bones-In skull and protect organs like the rib cage

Irregular bones-facial bones or vertebrae bones

inside a bone
Inside a Bone-
  • Our bones are alive- they have their own nerves and blood vessels, and they do various jobs, such as storing body minerals.
  • A typical bone has an outer layer of hard or compact bone, which is very strong, dense and tough.
  • Inside this is a layer of spongy bone, which is like honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible.
  • In the middle of some bones is jelly-called bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood.



  • Joints are the point were bones meet.

Types of Joints

  • Ball-and-socket joints- formed when a rounded head of one bone fits into the rounded cavity of an jointed bone. Hip & shoulder
  • Hinge joints-would include elbow, knee, ankle, and fingers. Allows bone to bend and straighten
  • Pivot joints- allow limited rotation or turning of the head
  • Ellipsoidal joints- bone in wrist, and a oval shaped part that fits in a curved space, the joints slide over each other
the skeleton
The Skeleton-
  • The Skeleton is the name given to the collection of bones that holds the rest of our body up. Our skeleton is very important to us. It does three major jobs:
  • It protects our vital organs such as the brain, the heart and the lungs.
  • It gives us the shape that we have. Without our skeleton, we would just be a blob of blood and tissue on the floor.
  • It allows us to move. Because our muscles are attached to our bones, when our muscles move, they move the bones, and we move.

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healthy bones
Healthy Bones
  • Most of the calcium in your body is stored in your bones
  • Exercise and a good diet help to keep bones strong
  • Vitamin D helps you absorb calcium so that your bones can stay strong
  • Sources of vitamin D include milk, salmon, cereal, beef and egg
  • When bones break they can heal themselves, and they are stronger when they heal than they were before they were
  • broken!

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Injuries to Joints and Bones


Hairline fractures- is were the fracture incomplete

Transverse fracture- a fracture that is completely across the bone


Dislocation- is when the ligaments attached to the bone are torn or out of place

Torn cartilage- is a sharp blow or twisting of the joint

Arthritis- inflammation of the joint and is a result of natural wear and tear


Care and Problems of the Skeleton System

Care of the Skeletal System

Ways to care for the Skeletal system is to eat foods that contain calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus, they can help prevent the development of certain skeletal disorders.

Problems of the Skeletal System

Problems of the skeletal system can be a result of poor nutrition, infections, sports, and recreational injuries and poor posture. Osteoporosis and dislocation of the joints are also other problems of the Skeletal System.


  • Osteoporosis- is a condition in which progressive loss of bone tissue occurs
  • Scoliosis- a lateral, or side-to-side, curvature of the spine
  • A Medical Radiologic Technologist works with a wide range of machines, film processing units, and accessory equipment to produce and record images for visualizing the extent of disease or injury to a patient.
  • A radiograph (X-ray) may be a routine film of the chest or a broken finger or it may form part of the sophisticated examinations used in the detection of heart, blood vessel, or brain abnormalities.

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t r i v i a2

Who discovered the X-ray?


  • Wilhelm Roentgen, a physicist at the University of Wursburg, Germany, discovered radiation “X-rays” on November 8, 1895. This discovery altered the course of medicine.
    • Roentgen refused to patent his discovery or realize financial gain from it, preferring instead that the world benefit from his research.
  • Many fields have emerged in Diagnostic Imaging since Roentgen’s discovery. The science has expanded to include General Imaging, CT Scan,

Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound and MR1

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  • Check out and find out about the different programs offered at SAIT that focus on
        • General Imaging
        • CT Scan
        • MRI
        • Ultrasound
        • Nuclear Medicine

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the professionals
The Professionals
  • Medical Radiologic Technologist
  • TRIVIA! How many months for this diploma?
    • Answer: Medical Radiologic Technology is a 21 month diploma
  • Nuclear Medicine Technologist
  • TRIVIA! What are the employment statistics?
    • Answer: Graduates enjoyed a 100% employment rate
  • Diagnostic Medical Sonographer
  • TRIVIA! What are the education requirements?
    • Answer: A High School Diploma, with over 60% in English 30,

Bio 30, Math 30/31, Physics 30 and Chemistry 20.

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the circulatory system
The Circulatory System

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did you know the average person has 4 5 litres of blood
Did you know?!The average person has 4-5 litres of blood
  • The blood is the transport system by which oxygen and nutrients reach the body's cells, and waste materials are carried away.
  • In addition, blood carries substances called hormones, which control body processes, and antibodies to fight invading germs.

______________________________________________Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body while White blood cells are like soldiers protecting the body.______________________________________________

  • ARTERIES are vessels that carry blood ____________ the heart.
  • VEINS are vessels that carry blood _________ the heart.




the heart
The Heart
  • Your heart is a muscle about the size of your clenched fist.
  • It is located in the left side of your chest, behind your rib cage and between your lungs
  • It has thick muscular walls and is divided into two pumps.
  • Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and low in oxygen.
  • This dark red blood travels along pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it receives fresh supplies of oxygen and becomes bright red.
  • The bright red blood then flows along pulmonary veins back to the heart's left side pump
  • Blood leaves the left side of the heart and travels through arteries which gradually divide into capillaries.
  • In the capillaries, food and oxygen are released to the body cells
      • The blood then travels in veins back to the right side of the heart, and the whole process begins again.

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Study This


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did you know blood is a liquid organ
Did You Know??!!Blood is a liquid organ
  • The heart beats around 3 billion times in the average person's life
  • Your blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood as it flows through the arteries of the cardiovascular system

Within a tiny droplet of blood, there are some 5 million red blood cells, 300 000 platelets and 10 000 white cells.

  • It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.
          • Microscopic View of Blood Cells
about how many red blood cells are there in one drop of blood
About how many red blood cells are there in one drop of blood?


  • There are about 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.

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the professionals1
The Professionals
  • Medical Laboratory Assistants
    • Collect, Prepare and process patient specimens
  • TRIVIA! What does phlebotomy mean?
    • Answer: Collecting Blood
  • Medical Laboratory Technologists
    • Responsible for a broad spectrum of lab testing and procedures to diagnose, treat and prevent disease
  • TRIVIA! This is Canada’s ___ largest group of health care professionals
    • Answer: They are Cananda’s 3rd Largest group of health care Professionals

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the digestive system
The Digestive System

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what have you eaten today
What have you EATEN today??
  • Food provides us with fuel to live, energy to work and play, and the raw materials to build new cells.
  • All the different varieties of food we eat are broken down by our digestive system and transported to every part of our body by our circulatory system.
        • We eat about 500kg of food A Year!

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The main part of the digestive system is the digestive tract.
  • This is like a long tube, some nine metres in total, through the middle of the body.
  • It starts at the mouth, where food and drink enter the body, and finishes at the anus, where leftover food and wastes leave the body
  • Every day 11.5 litres of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive system, but only 100mls is lost as waste.
The Mouth- Teeth bite off and chew food which mixes it with watery saliva, from 6 salivary glands around the mouth and face
  • The Oesophagus- A muscular tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach.
    • Food moves through theoesophagusby a muscular movement know as_____________
          • This means that even if you stand on your head, food will still reach your stomach!



the stomach
The Stomach
  • The stomach has a thick muscular wall that contracts to mash up the food
  • Stomach acids and enzymes begin to break down the nutrients in the food we eat, particularly the proteins
  • The liquefied contents of the stomach enter the small intestine for further processing
  • As the food is digested in the small intestine it is dissolved into the juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine,
  • The contents of the intestine are mixed and pushed forward to allow further digestion and absorption of nutrients by the walls of the intestine.
  • The waste products of this process include undigested parts of the food, known as fiber, and older cells shed from the lining of the stomach and intestine.
  • These materials are propelled into the colon, where they remain, usually for a day or two, until the feces are expelled by a bowel movement.
        • It takes about 20-30 hours to digest

food completely

the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen.
  • The respiratory system does this through breathing.
  • When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
  • When we inhale oxygen, it goes into our lungs and is absorbed by the blood stream
the lungs
The Lungs-
  • Inside each of your sponge-like lungs, tubes, called bronchi, branch into even smaller tubes much like the branches of a tree. At the end of these tubes are millions of tiny bubbles or sacs called aleoli.
  • They exchange the oxygen for waste products, like carbon dioxide, which the cells in your body have made and can't use.
  • Once they receive the oxygen, red blood cells turn from purple to that beautiful red color as they start carrying the oxygen to all the cells in your body.

*The branching out of the aleoli creates more surface area which in turn allows for more oxygen to be absorbed.



  • When we eat, a flap called the ________ -- flops down to cover the windpipe so that food doesn't go down the wrong tube.
  • ANSWER-___________


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The Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system coordinates all of the activities in your body, from breathing to digesting food or sensing pain or feeling of fear.


Cerebrum- is the largest and most complex part of the brain, its covered with a thin layer of gray matter

Cerebellum- is the second largest part of the brain and coordinates movement

Brain Stem- is a three inch stalk of nerve cells and fibers that connects to spinal cord to the rest of the brain

care and problems of the nervous system
Care and Problems of the Nervous System

Care of the Nervous System

Eating a well balanced diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep affect the health of your nervous system.

Ways to Protect your Nervous System

Keep your nervous system healthy by protecting it from injury. To protect your head and spine wear a helmet and protective gear while riding a bike, motorcycle, skating, and any contact sport.

disorders and problems
Disorders and Problems


Parkinson's disease-results in destruction of the nerve cells in an area of the brain that helps coordinate skeletal muscle movement

Multiple Sclerosis- involves the destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of the neurons in the CNS

Alzheimer's disease- results with neurons in the brain are destroyed If neurons become clogged with protein deposits, they are unable to transmit impulses result in loss of memory