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Synovial Joints of the body

Synovial Joints of the body

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Synovial Joints of the body

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  1. Synovial Joints of the body By: Dylan Turner, Jesse Walter, and Christine Stanley

  2. Overview • Most joints of the skeletal system are Synovial Joints. • These allow free movement and are more complex structures than fibrous or cartilaginous joints. • Consists of articular cartilage; a joint capsule, and a synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid.

  3. Structures Articular Cartilage- resists wear and minimizes friction when it is compressed as the joint moves. Joint Capsule- has two distinct layers that holds together the bones of the joint. Ligaments- reinforce the joint capsule and help bind the articular ends of the bones. Ovial Membrane- the inner layer of the joint capsule that consists of a shiny vascular linning of loose connective tissue. Synovial Fluid- a clear viscous fluid

  4. Structures Cont. Menesci- discs of fibrocartilage Bursae- Fluid-filled sacs containing synovial fluid and is commonly located between the skin and underlying bony prominences.

  5. Types of Synovial Joints cont. • Ball-and-socket joint- consists of a bone with a globular or egg-shaped head that articulates with the cup shaped cavity of another bone. Ex-Hip and Shoulder • Condylar joint- the ovoid condylar of one bone fitting into another elliptical cavity of another bone. Ex-betweeen metacarpals and phalanges

  6. Types of Synovial Joints • Glidding Joint- Nearly flat or slightly curved. These joints allow sliding back and forth motion and twisting. Ex-Wrist and Ankle. • Hinge Joint- the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave of another. Ex- elbow and phalanges

  7. Types of Synovial Joints • Pivot Joint- the cylindrical surface of one bone rotates in a ring formed of bone and a ligament. Ex- between the radius and ulna • Saddle Joint- Forms between bones with concave and convex regions. Ex- carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.

  8. Traumatic Joint Disease • Traumatic Joint Disease is the result of trauma. • Synovitis – inflammation of the synovial membrane. • Painful condition particularly when the joint is moved. The joint usually swells due to synovial fluid collection.

  9. Synovitis Symptoms Synovitis is a major problem in - rheumatoid arthritis - juvenile arthritis - lupus - psoriatic arthritis • Joint appears swollen or puffy to the touch • The increase blood flow makes the joint warm • Cells release enzymes into joint space causing further pain and irritation • Over years enzymes gradually digest the cartilage and bone of the joint leading to chronic pain