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8 5 3 2 1 Extant How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals Archezoans Slime Molds Archaebacteria Protozoans Green Algae Bryophytes Myxozoans True Fungi Chrysophytes Tracheophytes Euglenoids Brown Algae Bacteria Red algae Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only Original Cell

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how many kingdoms

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Protozoans

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Chrysophytes

Tracheophytes

Euglenoids

Brown Algae

Bacteria

Red algae

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell

animal features
Animal Features
  • Multicellular Eukaryotes
  • Heterotrophic Ingestion
  • Collagen Protein Connections
  • Nerve and Muscle Tissues
  • Diplontic (Gametic) Life History
  • Gametes Oogamous with Flagellated Sperm
  • Zygote to Blastula, perhaps Gastrulation
  • Larval metamorphosis into Adult
  • Ontogeny Recapitulating Phylogeny
animals

Animals

Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Nematoda

slide4

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/ecdysozoa/nematodexssm.gifhttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/ecdysozoa/nematodexssm.gif

http://www.ua.es/dpto/dcarn/fitopatologia/Images/Celegans1.jpg

Nematode Body Organization

http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/nematode/nem_fig1.jpg

slide5

Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous soil nematode, feeds on E. coli in vitro, is a genetic model organism, its genome is sequenced.

http://ucdnema.ucdavis.edu/imagemap/nemmap/Ent156html/nemas/c-elegans.gif

http://www.apsnet.org/education/feature/Celegans/Images/fig5.JPG

embryo in shell of zygote

N=6

XX=hermaphrodite

XO=male

protandrous

Life cycle: 3 days at 20°C

vulva

anus

mouth

http://www.esa.int/export/images/Ce_400.jpg

slide6

syngamy

meiosis

protandrous

http://nema.cap.ed.ac.uk/Caenorhabditis/C_elegans_genome/celeganslifecycle.jpg

animals7

Animals

Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Annelida

slide8

Lumbriculus variegatus : California mudworm

This is an aquatic oligochaete annelid

Mouth feeds in sediments

Tail extends toward water surface for gas exchange

Body walls nearly transparent for easy observation

For example: may count pulses of blood in dorsal vessel

http://www.westminster.net/faculty/cobler/Lumbriculus%20variegatus.jpg

slide9

clitellum

mouth

anus

http://iris.cnice.mecd.es/biosfera/alumno/1bachillerato/animal/imagenes/nervio/lumbricus.jpg

edge of ventral reproductive structures

Lumbricus terrestris: Canadian nightcrawler or Earthworm

slide10

The earthworm body is fundamentally segmented. Here is a typical segment:

Each segment is filled with coelomic fluid, under some pressure, which provides “stiffness.”

The segments near the head are specialized for other physiological functions.

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/142003_Annelida.jpg

slide11

http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__12_annel_arthro/images/lumbr_diagr_dissection.jpghttp://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__12_annel_arthro/images/lumbr_diagr_dissection.jpg

Major Organ Systems in an Earthworm

Excretory:

Reproductive:Male

Female

Circulatory: Gases, Nutrients, Wastes

Digestive: Food Intake Nutrient Absorption

Muscular: Movement

Dermal: Gas Exchange

Nervous: Sensory and Coordination

slide13

Characteristics

  • More than 100 segments
  • Segments separated by partitions that divide coelom
  • Segments identical except when specialized and fused
  • Anterior and posterior ends
  • Cephalization specialized for burrowing
  • Head contains sense organs
  • Circular and longitudinal muscles

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

1    Mouth

2    Prostomium

3    Segment

4    Spermathecal openings

5    Female (oviduct) opening

6    Male (vas deferens) opening

7    Sperm groove

8    Papilla

9    Clitellum (saddle)

10    Paired setae (ventro-lateral)

11    Anus

12    Dorsal surface

13    Ventral surface

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20external%20form.htm

slide14

Movement

  • Setae anchored during movement
  • Circular muscles contract
  • Hydrostatic pressure increases in anterior coelomic cavities
  • Body elongates pushing head forward
  • Anterior setae grip ground
  • Longitudinal muscles contract--posterior pulled along
  • Coelomic divisions allow simultaneous contraction and expansion of segments

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

A    External view

B    Section through segment

1    Coelom

2    Circular muscle

3    Cuticle

4    Intestine

5    Dorsal blood vessel

6    Typhlosole

7    Epidermis

8    Nephridium

9    Longitudinal muscle

10    Seta

11    Protractor muscle

12    Retractor muscle

13    Ventral nerve cord

14    Subneural vessel

15    Ventral vessel

16    Septum

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20muscle%20system.htm

slide15

Nervous

  • Sensitive to tough, light, moisture, chemicals, temperature, and vibrations
  • Light receptors on head and tail--sense direction
  • Most sense organs and nerves control muscle contractions in individual segments
  • Pair of ganglia in each segment coordinate movement with adjacent segments
  • Cerebral ganglion in head controls total body
  • Ventral nerve cord connects brain with ganglia

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

1    Anus

2    Intestine

3    Cerebral ganglion

4    Prostomium

5    Mouth

6    Nerve collar

7    Segmental ganglion

8    Pharynx

9    Esophagus

10    Segmental nerve

11    Crop

12    Gizzard

13    Ventral nerve cord

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20digestive%20and%20nervous%20systems.htm

slide16

Feeding

  • Feed on organic matter in soil
  • Digest organic matter
  • Wastes and undigested soil eliminated as casting
  • Loosens and aerates soil
  • Digestion
  • Soil sucked in by pharynx -> esophagus -> crop (storage) ->
  • gizzard (grinds soil releasing organic matter) ->
  • intestine (nutrients absorbed)

1    Anus

2    Intestine

3    Cerebral ganglion

4    Prostomium

5    Mouth

6    Nerve collar

7    Segmental ganglion

8    Pharynx

9    Esophagus

10    Segmental nerve

11    Crop

12    Gizzard

13    Ventral nerve cord

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20digestive%20and%20nervous%20systems.htm

slide17

Circulation

  • Transport oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
  • Flow of blood toward posterior via ventral blood vessel
  • Flow of blood toward anterior via dorsal blood vessel
  • 5 pair of aortic arches link vessels near anterior
  • Smaller vessels branch into segments
  • Contraction of ventral vessel and aortic arches forces blood through body

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

1    Anus

2    Dorso-subneural vessel

3    Intestine

4    Dorsal vessel

5    Hearts (aortic arches)

6    Mouth

7    Ventral vessel

8    Subneural vessel

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20circulatory%20system.htm

slide18

Gas Exchange

  • Lack gills or lungs--oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across skin
  • Requires moist skin, thin cuticle, mucus secretion…limits habitat!
  • Excretion
  • Elimination of nitrogen wastes
  • Long tubules (nephridia) excrete wastes
  • Coelomic fluid enters nephridium through ciliated funnel opening
  • Some water reabsorbed by blood
  • Remaining fluid excreted through ventral pores

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

A    External view

B    Excretory system (nephridium)

C-D    Reproductive system

C    Lateral view

D    Dorsal view

1    Nephrostome

2    Septum

3    Ciliated tube

4    Bladder

5    Nephridiopore

6    Body wall

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20excretory%20and%20reproductive%20systems.htm

slide19

Reproduction

  • Hermaphrodites--cannot self fertilize
  • Worms join head to tail
  • Form mucus coat around bodies--each inject sperm into mucus
  • Sperm move to seminal receptacle
  • Eggs move through oviducts to female genital pore
  • Clitellum secretes mucus and chitinous sheath
  • Worm wiggles to slip off sheath
  • Eggs and sperm join

A    External view

B    Excretory system (nephridium)

C-D    Reproductive system

C    Lateral view

D    Dorsal view

1    Nephrostome

2    Septum

3    Ciliated tube

4    Bladder

5    Nephridiopore

6    Body wall

7    Seminal vesicle

8    Testis

9    Egg sac

10    Male opening

11    Female opening

12    Oviduct

13    Ovary

14    Sperm duct (vas deferens)

15    Opening to sperm-receiving sac

16    Sperm-receiving sac (spermatheca)

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20excretory%20and%20reproductive%20systems.htm

slide20

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/worms_mating.jpg

http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/BioG101_104/tutorials/animals/worm_stuff/worm_ventral.html

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/earthworm_dissection.htm

slide21

flagellum

collar

cell body

http://192.171.163.165/pil/Choanoflagellate_spp..jpg

http://ebiomedia.com/downloads/sponges.pdf

Animals probably evolved from a flagellated protist similar to the choanoflagellates

One step in this evolution is to become colonial. Here are the choanocytes of one of the simplest of sponges. Basically the most primitive animals.

Of course the other required step is to eliminate the chloroplasts of the choanoflagellate (Chrysophyta!).

slide22

spongocoel

Planarian

gastrovascular

cavity

Nematode

pseudocoelom

digestive tract

Annelid

coelom

Evolution of Body Organization

Sponge, Cnidarian

Ectoderm

Endoderm

Mesoderm

2-layered

3-layered

Acoelomate

Pseudocoelomate

Coelomate

slide23

Development or Evolution?

cleavage

zygote

blastula

2-layered acoelomate body plan

slide24

Cnidarians

Protostome Phyla

archenteron

Deuterostome Phyla

(except vertebrates)

blastopore

mouth

mouth

anus

Platyhelminthes

Nematoda

Annelida

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Origin of Mesoderm

Echinodermata

Hemichordata

Chordata

blastocoel

the animal clade

Mollusca

Annelida

Platyhelminthes

Echinodermata

Rotifera

Arthropoda

Hemichordata

Nematoda

Porifera

Cnidaria

eumetazoa (true tissues)

deuterostomia

bilateria

coelomates

loss of chloroplast, colonial organization

radiata

acoelomates

protostomia

pseudo-coelomates

parazoa

Extant

The Animal Clade

Chordata

This cladogram omits several smaller animal phyla!

Ancestral Choanoflagellate