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  1. 8 5 3 2 1 Extant How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals Archezoans Slime Molds Archaebacteria Protozoans Green Algae Bryophytes Myxozoans True Fungi Chrysophytes Tracheophytes Euglenoids Brown Algae Bacteria Red algae Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only Original Cell

  2. Animal Features • Multicellular Eukaryotes • Heterotrophic Ingestion • Collagen Protein Connections • Nerve and Muscle Tissues • Diplontic (Gametic) Life History • Gametes Oogamous with Flagellated Sperm • Zygote to Blastula, perhaps Gastrulation • Larval metamorphosis into Adult • Ontogeny Recapitulating Phylogeny

  3. Animals Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Nematoda

  4. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/ecdysozoa/nematodexssm.gifhttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/ecdysozoa/nematodexssm.gif http://www.ua.es/dpto/dcarn/fitopatologia/Images/Celegans1.jpg Nematode Body Organization http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/nematode/nem_fig1.jpg

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous soil nematode, feeds on E. coli in vitro, is a genetic model organism, its genome is sequenced. http://ucdnema.ucdavis.edu/imagemap/nemmap/Ent156html/nemas/c-elegans.gif http://www.apsnet.org/education/feature/Celegans/Images/fig5.JPG embryo in shell of zygote N=6 XX=hermaphrodite XO=male protandrous Life cycle: 3 days at 20°C vulva anus mouth http://www.esa.int/export/images/Ce_400.jpg

  6. syngamy meiosis protandrous http://nema.cap.ed.ac.uk/Caenorhabditis/C_elegans_genome/celeganslifecycle.jpg

  7. Animals Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Annelida

  8. Lumbriculus variegatus : California mudworm This is an aquatic oligochaete annelid Mouth feeds in sediments Tail extends toward water surface for gas exchange Body walls nearly transparent for easy observation For example: may count pulses of blood in dorsal vessel http://www.westminster.net/faculty/cobler/Lumbriculus%20variegatus.jpg

  9. clitellum mouth anus http://iris.cnice.mecd.es/biosfera/alumno/1bachillerato/animal/imagenes/nervio/lumbricus.jpg edge of ventral reproductive structures Lumbricus terrestris: Canadian nightcrawler or Earthworm

  10. The earthworm body is fundamentally segmented. Here is a typical segment: Each segment is filled with coelomic fluid, under some pressure, which provides “stiffness.” The segments near the head are specialized for other physiological functions. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/142003_Annelida.jpg

  11. http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__12_annel_arthro/images/lumbr_diagr_dissection.jpghttp://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__12_annel_arthro/images/lumbr_diagr_dissection.jpg Major Organ Systems in an Earthworm Excretory: Reproductive:Male Female Circulatory: Gases, Nutrients, Wastes Digestive: Food Intake Nutrient Absorption Muscular: Movement Dermal: Gas Exchange Nervous: Sensory and Coordination

  12. http://myhome.naver.com/c65hoi5/c3/c33236.jpg

  13. Characteristics • More than 100 segments • Segments separated by partitions that divide coelom • Segments identical except when specialized and fused • Anterior and posterior ends • Cephalization specialized for burrowing • Head contains sense organs • Circular and longitudinal muscles http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm 1    Mouth 2    Prostomium 3    Segment 4    Spermathecal openings 5    Female (oviduct) opening 6    Male (vas deferens) opening 7    Sperm groove 8    Papilla 9    Clitellum (saddle) 10    Paired setae (ventro-lateral) 11    Anus 12    Dorsal surface 13    Ventral surface http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20external%20form.htm

  14. Movement • Setae anchored during movement • Circular muscles contract • Hydrostatic pressure increases in anterior coelomic cavities • Body elongates pushing head forward • Anterior setae grip ground • Longitudinal muscles contract--posterior pulled along • Coelomic divisions allow simultaneous contraction and expansion of segments http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm A    External view B    Section through segment 1    Coelom 2    Circular muscle 3    Cuticle 4    Intestine 5    Dorsal blood vessel 6    Typhlosole 7    Epidermis 8    Nephridium 9    Longitudinal muscle 10    Seta 11    Protractor muscle 12    Retractor muscle 13    Ventral nerve cord 14    Subneural vessel 15    Ventral vessel 16    Septum http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20muscle%20system.htm

  15. Nervous • Sensitive to tough, light, moisture, chemicals, temperature, and vibrations • Light receptors on head and tail--sense direction • Most sense organs and nerves control muscle contractions in individual segments • Pair of ganglia in each segment coordinate movement with adjacent segments • Cerebral ganglion in head controls total body • Ventral nerve cord connects brain with ganglia http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm 1    Anus 2    Intestine 3    Cerebral ganglion 4    Prostomium 5    Mouth 6    Nerve collar 7    Segmental ganglion 8    Pharynx 9    Esophagus 10    Segmental nerve 11    Crop 12    Gizzard 13    Ventral nerve cord http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20digestive%20and%20nervous%20systems.htm

  16. Feeding • Feed on organic matter in soil • Digest organic matter • Wastes and undigested soil eliminated as casting • Loosens and aerates soil • Digestion • Soil sucked in by pharynx -> esophagus -> crop (storage) -> • gizzard (grinds soil releasing organic matter) -> • intestine (nutrients absorbed) 1    Anus 2    Intestine 3    Cerebral ganglion 4    Prostomium 5    Mouth 6    Nerve collar 7    Segmental ganglion 8    Pharynx 9    Esophagus 10    Segmental nerve 11    Crop 12    Gizzard 13    Ventral nerve cord http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20digestive%20and%20nervous%20systems.htm

  17. Circulation • Transport oxygen, nutrients, and wastes • Flow of blood toward posterior via ventral blood vessel • Flow of blood toward anterior via dorsal blood vessel • 5 pair of aortic arches link vessels near anterior • Smaller vessels branch into segments • Contraction of ventral vessel and aortic arches forces blood through body http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm 1    Anus 2    Dorso-subneural vessel 3    Intestine 4    Dorsal vessel 5    Hearts (aortic arches) 6    Mouth 7    Ventral vessel 8    Subneural vessel http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20circulatory%20system.htm

  18. Gas Exchange • Lack gills or lungs--oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across skin • Requires moist skin, thin cuticle, mucus secretion…limits habitat! • Excretion • Elimination of nitrogen wastes • Long tubules (nephridia) excrete wastes • Coelomic fluid enters nephridium through ciliated funnel opening • Some water reabsorbed by blood • Remaining fluid excreted through ventral pores http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm A    External view B    Excretory system (nephridium) C-D    Reproductive system C    Lateral view D    Dorsal view 1    Nephrostome 2    Septum 3    Ciliated tube 4    Bladder 5    Nephridiopore 6    Body wall http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20excretory%20and%20reproductive%20systems.htm

  19. Reproduction • Hermaphrodites--cannot self fertilize • Worms join head to tail • Form mucus coat around bodies--each inject sperm into mucus • Sperm move to seminal receptacle • Eggs move through oviducts to female genital pore • Clitellum secretes mucus and chitinous sheath • Worm wiggles to slip off sheath • Eggs and sperm join A    External view B    Excretory system (nephridium) C-D    Reproductive system C    Lateral view D    Dorsal view 1    Nephrostome 2    Septum 3    Ciliated tube 4    Bladder 5    Nephridiopore 6    Body wall 7    Seminal vesicle 8    Testis 9    Egg sac 10    Male opening 11    Female opening 12    Oviduct 13    Ovary 14    Sperm duct (vas deferens) 15    Opening to sperm-receiving sac 16    Sperm-receiving sac (spermatheca) http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/phylum_annelida.htm http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Graphic%20webs/Earthworm-%20excretory%20and%20reproductive%20systems.htm

  20. http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/worms_mating.jpg http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/BioG101_104/tutorials/animals/worm_stuff/worm_ventral.html http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/earthworm_dissection.htm

  21. flagellum collar cell body http://192.171.163.165/pil/Choanoflagellate_spp..jpg http://ebiomedia.com/downloads/sponges.pdf Animals probably evolved from a flagellated protist similar to the choanoflagellates One step in this evolution is to become colonial. Here are the choanocytes of one of the simplest of sponges. Basically the most primitive animals. Of course the other required step is to eliminate the chloroplasts of the choanoflagellate (Chrysophyta!).

  22. spongocoel Planarian gastrovascular cavity Nematode pseudocoelom digestive tract Annelid coelom Evolution of Body Organization Sponge, Cnidarian Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm 2-layered 3-layered Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate

  23. Development or Evolution? cleavage zygote blastula 2-layered acoelomate body plan

  24. Cnidarians Protostome Phyla archenteron Deuterostome Phyla (except vertebrates) blastopore mouth mouth anus Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Origin of Mesoderm Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata blastocoel

  25. Mollusca Annelida Platyhelminthes Echinodermata Rotifera Arthropoda Hemichordata Nematoda Porifera Cnidaria eumetazoa (true tissues) deuterostomia bilateria coelomates loss of chloroplast, colonial organization radiata acoelomates protostomia pseudo-coelomates parazoa Extant The Animal Clade Chordata This cladogram omits several smaller animal phyla! Ancestral Choanoflagellate