550-1550 AD. ROYAL KINGDOMS OF AFRICA. Aksum 100-700’s GHANA – (550 – 1100 AD) MALI – (1240 – 1546 AD) SONGHAI – (1464 – 1590). 3 great kingdoms. The Rise of Aksum. People of Aksum descended from African farmers, as well as migrants from Middle East
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550-1550 AD ROYAL KINGDOMS OF AFRICA
Aksum 100-700’s GHANA – (550 – 1100 AD) MALI – (1240 – 1546 AD) SONGHAI – (1464 – 1590) 3 great kingdoms
The Rise of Aksum • People of Aksum descended from African farmers, as well as migrants from Middle East • By AD 100, Aksum was wealthy trading kingdom • Two main cities: Aksum, capital; Adulis, thriving Red Sea port • Geographic location provided advantages: well suited for agriculture; Red Sea proximity ideal for trade, access to Indian Ocean • Seaport attracted merchants from African interior, Mediterranean region, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India
Decline of Aksum Muslim Invaders • 600s, Aksum began to decline, partly because of arrival of Muslim invaders • 600s, 700s invaders conquered parts of East, North Africa • Aksum itself was never conquered • Nearby areas became Muslim; Christian Aksum isolated • Muslims destroyed Aksum’s port city, Adulis, took over Red Sea trade • Cut off from trade, Aksum lost main source of wealth • Aksum people eventually retreated inland, settled in what is now northern Ethiopia
Location delayed development—no access to the sea also blocked by Sahara. The first few centuries AD traders learned how to cross the Sahara. By AD 800 controlled nearly all trade of salt and gold in sub-Saharan Africa—heavy taxes on salt. The wealth enabled kings to protect trade routes, conquer lands and raise and army if needed. Rise of GHANA Traveled in Caravans with camels to carry supples
Decline of Ghana • By mid 1000’s Ghana was rich and powerful and tried to expand to the north but came in contact with the Almoravids, a muslim Berber kingdom. This led to a long war. • In 1076 the Almoravids captured Koumbi-Saleh, Ghana’s capital. This weakened the empire.
In the 1230’s Mali rose to power built on the same territory as Ghana. • Founded by the Malinke people: Sundiata rose to power, ruled for 25 years • GOLD AND SALT TRADE – WEALTH AND POWER • MOST FAMOUS RULER – MANSA MUSA Reached its height under Musa in the 1300’s • WEALTH, EXPANSION,ISLAM, PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA, BUILT MOSQUES (ISLAMIC CHURCH) Rise of mali
Decline of Mali • A series of weak rulers after Musa left the government in a shambles in the 1300’s • Kingdom broke apart and was invaded by the Tuareg of North Africa. In 1433 the Tuareg captured Timbuktu and Mali never recovered. Mansa Musa
Located in the eastern part of what had been Mali TRADE – GOLD AND SALT: by 1460’s became strong/wealthy MILITARY CONQUESTS: military leader Sunni Ali, took back Timbuktu Askia Muhammad: First Muslim ruler. Led Songhai to cultural heights, expanded land and strengthened government LAST GREAT WEST AFRICAN KINGDOM: conquered in 1591 by Morocco Rise of SONGHAI