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Going to the Moon. As of August 29, 2009, 505 individuals from 38 countries had flown in space. . This is Rocket Science. First U.S. spy satellites, the Discoverer series (1960-) Designed to take photos, drop film canisters for mid-air recovery.

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going to the moon

Going to the Moon

As of August 29, 2009, 505 individuals from 38 countries had flown in space.

this is rocket science
This is Rocket Science
  • First U.S. spy satellites, the Discoverer series (1960-)
  • Designed to take photos, drop film canisters for mid-air recovery.
  • Thirteen consecutive failures before success
  • Eventually evolved into standard U.S. space intelligence systems
  • Spy satellites key in keeping peace during the Cold War
the soviets press on
The Soviets Press On
  • Yuri Gagarin (one orbit) April 12, 1961
  • Gherman Titov, August 6-7, 1961, more than 24 hours in orbit.
  • Andrian Nikolayev and Pavel Popovich, 1962; first two manned spacecraft to be simultaneously in orbit.
  • This series of spacecraft was called Vostok (Russian for "east", connoting sunrise).
more soviet firsts
More Soviet Firsts
  • In June, 1963, a second twin launch carried Valery Bykovsky and Valentina Tereshkova into orbit.
  • Tereshkova became the first woman into space, and the last for two decades.
and still more
And Still More
  • In 1964 the Soviets launched the first of the Voskhod (meaning "ascent") multi-person spacecraft.
  • Three cosmonauts orbited on Voskhod 1 in 1964
  • Two orbited on Voskhod 2 in 1965. One of these, Alexei Leonov, made the first space walk.
project mercury 1961 63
Project Mercury 1961-63
  • U.S. response: adapt a space capsule to an existing missile.
  • The first series of U.S. manned space missions was called Mercury.
  • Nobody had a clue what qualities would be necessary to travel in space.
  • Military test pilots were chosen.
  • Two suborbital flights
  • Four orbital flights (3-22 orbits)
project gemini 1965 66
Project Gemini, 1965-66
  • Two-man craft
  • Ten flights up to 14 days long
  • First (and only) U.S. rendezvous (Gemini 6 and 7)
  • First emergency landing, also first Pacific landing (Gemini 8)
  • Altitude record (Gemini 11, 1370 km)
russians to the moon
Russians to the Moon
  • In 1959 Luna II became the first spacecraft to strike the Moon.
  • In 1960, Luna III returned the first (very crude) pictures ever of the Moon’s far side.
  • 1966-68: First lunar soft landing, lunar rover and sample-return mission.
did the russians ever have a serious manned lunar program
Did the Russians ever have a serious manned lunar program?
  • Critics: a myth to sustain NASA through the use of cold war hysteria.
  • In early 1990’s artifacts from the supposedly nonexistent Soviet lunar program, including lunar spacesuits, went on sale at Sotheby's in New York.
did the russians ever have a serious manned lunar program1
Did the Russians ever have a serious manned lunar program?
  • Several catastrophic explosions of the Soviet lunar rocket booster made it clear that they would not beat the U.S. to the moon.
  • Failure probably due to cutting corners and false economizing (Dan Goldin, are you listening?)
did the russians ever have a serious manned lunar program2
Did the Russians ever have a serious manned lunar program?
  • Author James Oberg calls continued denial of a Soviet lunar landing program a "cover-up".
kennedy s challenge
Kennedy’s Challenge
  • U.S. had 15 minutes’ experience in space when Kennedy proposed a race to the Moon.
  • Reason: would require both sides to develop new technology
  • Would be a level playing field
u s robots to the moon 1963 68
U.S. Robots to the Moon, 1963-68
  • Ranger series: designed to impact the Moon, returning pictures on the way.
    • Only last three of nine worked, but results were spectacular.
  • Surveyor soft-lander series; most of the seven worked well.
  • Five Lunar Orbiter missions mapped almost all of the Moon.
  • First pictures ever of the Earth rising above the lunar horizon.
tragedy for the russians
Tragedy for the Russians
  • Vladimir Komarov, on Soyuz 1, 1967, was Russia's first two-time space traveler. In 1967
  • His parachute failed on re-entry; first space traveler to be killed.
  • Soyuz 11, 1971, lost pressurization on reentry; three-man crew died from lack of oxygen.
tragedy at the cape
Tragedy at the Cape
  • On January 26, 1967, astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee were killed in a fire.
  • The Apollo Program was delayed for 18 months while equipment and procedures were redesigned.
apollo gets off the ground
Apollo Gets Off the Ground
  • Apollo 7, October 11, 1968, was first launch of a manned Apollo capsule into orbit.
  • Decision was made to reverse the order of the next two missions
  • Apollo 8: lunar flyby and return.
  • Live broadcast from lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, 1968.
more rehearsals
More Rehearsals
  • Apollo 9 in Earth orbit, was a test of the lunar module.
  • Apollo 10, a return to the Moon, practiced maneuvering the lander in lunar orbit but did not touch down.
the eagle has landed
The Eagle Has Landed
  • At 4:17:41 P.M. (EDT) on July 20, 1969, an estimated 500 million people watched worldwide as Apollo 11 touched down on the Moon, confirmed by the message: "Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed."
  • 6-1/2 hours later, Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the moon.
houston we ve had a problem
Houston, We’ve Had a Problem
  • Apollo 12 landed near the site of the Surveyor 3 lunar lander as a test of pinpoint lunar navigation.
  • Apollo 13: side of the lunar service module blew out halfway to the Moon and only heroic innovations on the ground and in space got the crew back.
apollo science
Apollo Science
  • Apollo 14: first to explore lunar highlands.
  • Apollo 15: first to use the lunar rover.
  • Apollo 16 made three rover expeditions totaling 27 km.
  • Apollo 17 made three rover expeditions lasting 22 hours and travelling 35 kilometers.
end of apollo
End of Apollo
  • Apollo astronauts John Young (10, 16), Eugene Cernan (10, 17), and Jim Lovell (8, 13) each made two lunar flights.
  • No one has actually set foot on the Moon twice.
  • September 2, 1970: Apollo 18-20 cancelled.
  • We just quit.