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Europe in the 1500s. European Politics. Economic transformation Religious upheaval Dominance of Spain & Portugal. Economic Changes in the 1500s. Population change European population doubles between 1460 & 1620 increases value of land Rising value of goods

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european politics
European Politics
  • Economic transformation
  • Religious upheaval
  • Dominance of Spain & Portugal.
economic changes in the 1500s
Economic Changes in the 1500s
  • Population change
    • European population doubles between 1460 & 1620
    • increases value of land
  • Rising value of goods
    • Ex. Cost of cereals increased 8x between 1460 & 1620
    • factors driving increase
      • rising demand with increasing population
      • influx of silver and gold from New World fuels inflation.
economic changes in the 1500s4
Economic Changes in the 1500s
  • Land ownership - shift from feudal based communal system to profit motive
    • nobles own lands
    • peasants have obligations and right to “commons”
    • rising value of land triggers “enclosure”
    • nobles begin selling or leasing lands
    • can hire laborers for low wages because of high unemployment caused by enclosure.
economic changes in the 1500s5
Economic Changes in the 1500s
  • Agricultural Changes
    • land consolidation & rising rich/poor gap
    • “Convertible Husbandry”
      • replaces 3 field crop rotation
      • cereals, peas or beans, and cattle
    • Baltic becomes “Breadbasket for Western Europe”.
economic changes in the 1500s6
Economic Changes in the 1500s

Results

  • Growing, rootless population
  • Demand for land - primogeniture
  • Rise of consumerism
  • Demand for goods and materials
    • Reformation
  • Technology.
protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
  • 1517 - Luther and 95 Theses
    • critical of RC Church practices, esp. selling indulgences
      • theologically unsound because salvation cannot be earned by works
  • Role played by printing presses.
protestant reformation8
Protestant Reformation
  • Protestantism seen as personal salvation and way to renew corrupt society and government
  • religious and political movements of this time require support of princes
  • Luther gets support early
    • why?(beyond spiritual reasons)
      • Confiscate church lands
      • oppose Holy Roman Emperor
      • Germans can free themselves from Italian domination.
protestant reformation9
Protestant Reformation
  • Luther only attacks church, not secular authority
  • 1524 Peasant revolt in Germany trying to decrease taxes, Luther sides with….

Foundering of the Church

Nobles

reformation in england
Reformation in England
  • England initially (1517-1534) remains staunchly Catholic
  • Dissention within the church hierarchy and distance from Rome weakens support for Pope
  • Henry’s inability to gain a male heir triggers the break between England and Rome.
henry viii
Henry VIII
  • Henry VIII and his six (!) wives
    • Pope delays giving an annulment
    • divorced, beheaded, died/ divorced, beheaded, survived
  • Act of Supremacy 1534
    • Henry is head of “Church of England” - Anglican
    • “Catholic Lite”
    • beginnings of religious turmoil in England lasting until ~1660.

Henry VIII

elizabeth i
Elizabeth I
  • daughter of Henry’s second wife - reigns from 1558-1603
    • legality of claim
  • “Virgin” Queen
    • Male power & perception
    • Virginia
  • Catholic or Protestant?
    • Church of England.
elizabeth i14
Elizabeth I
  • rising tensions with Spain
    • Mary Tudor & Catholicism
      • her husband
    • profit motive
      • monopolies
      • privateers
      • joint stock companies
    • assistance to Dutch rebels
    • increasing naval strength.
sir francis drake
Sir Francis Drake

El Drago

  • Raiding in the Spanish Caribbean
  • Golden Hind
  • Capture of Santo Domingo
  • Assault on Florida
  • Roanoke.

Francis Drake

spanish reaction
Spanish reaction
  • 1571 Battle of Lepanto
  • 1580 Portugal becomes part of Spanish empire
  • Phillip II seeks revenge on England
  • 1588 Spanish Armada.
spanish armada
Spanish Armada
  • Fleet leaves Lisbon
    • 22,000 men
  • “Protestant Wind”
  • Psychological impact
  • Impact in New World.
foundations of spanish and portuguese dominance
Foundations of Spanish and Portuguese Dominance
  • Technological change
  • Motive for discovery
    • Religion
    • Economic exploitation
    • Markets for European goods.
changing ship design
Changing Ship Design

Merchant Ship in 1532

in 1580

religious motives
Religious Motives
  • Catholics
    • oppose Protestants
    • seek to convert “heathens”
      • save their souls
      • easier to govern
    • Establishment of Spanish mission at Virginia Beach, VA - ~ 1570-1571
  • Protestants
    • oppose Catholics
    • find Kingdom of Prestor John.
spain
Spain
  • dominance of native peoples
  • Bartolome de Las Casas
    • “black legend” vs. “deliverance from barbarism”.
england
England
  • Late arrival in the new world - why?
    • Reformation splits England
    • occupation of Ireland
    • wars in Europe
    • privateering in the Caribbean
  • Roanoke colony - 1584
    • purpose
    • pattern for future.