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Essentials of Marketing Research Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis TABULATION FREQUENCY TABLE PERCENTAGES CENTRAL TENDENCY & DISPERSION MEAN/MEDIAN STANDARD DEVIATION CROSS-TABULATION ANALYZE DATA BY GROUPS OR CATEGORIES COMPARE DIFFERENCES CONTINGENCY TABLE

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essentials of marketing research

Essentials of Marketing Research

Chapter 14:

Basic Data Analysis

tabulation
TABULATION
  • FREQUENCY TABLE
  • PERCENTAGES
  • CENTRAL TENDENCY & DISPERSION
    • MEAN/MEDIAN
    • STANDARD DEVIATION
cross tabulation
CROSS-TABULATION
  • ANALYZE DATA BY GROUPS OR CATEGORIES
  • COMPARE DIFFERENCES
  • CONTINGENCY TABLE
  • PERCENTAGE CROSS-TABULATIONS
elaboration and refinement
ELABORATION AND REFINEMENT
  • ELABORATION ANALYSIS
  • MODERATOR VARIABLE
  • SPURIOUS RELATIONSHIP
data transformation
DATA TRANSFORMATION
  • DATA CONVERSION
  • CHANGING THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE DATA INTO A NEW FORMAT
  • MORE APPROPRIATE DATA ANALYSIS
  • NEW VARIABLES
calculating rank order
CALCULATING RANK ORDER
  • ORDINAL DATA
  • BRAND PREFERENCES
tables
TABLES
  • BANNERHEADS FOR COLUMNS
  • STUDHEADS FOR ROWS
charts and graphs
CHARTS AND GRAPHS
  • PIE CHARTS
  • LINE GRAPHS
  • BAR CHARTS
    • VERTICAL
    • HORIZONTAL
computer programs
COMPUTER PROGRAMS
  • SPSS
  • SAS
  • SYSTAT
  • MICROSOFT EXCEL
hypothesis
HYPOTHESIS
  • AN UNPROVEN PROPOSITION OR SUPPOSITION THAT TENTATIVELY EXPLAINS CERTAIN FACTS OF PHENOMENA
      • NULL HYPOTHESIS – H0
      • ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS – H1
significance level
SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL
  • CRITICAL PROBABILITY IN CHOOSING BETWEEN THE NULL HYPOTHESIS AND THE ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
  • PROBABILITY LEVEL SELECTED IS TYPICALLY .05 OR .01 (Similar to 95% and 99% Confidence)
  • TOO LOW TO WARRANT SUPPORT FOR THE NULL HYPOTHESIS
testing a hypothesis about a mean
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT A MEAN
  • Null Hypothesis that mean equals 3.0

H0:  = 3.0

  • Alternative Hypothesis that mean does not equal 3.0

H1:   3.0

critical values
CRITICAL VALUES
  • Z = 1.96 at 95 percent confidence level

S = 1.5

N = 225

  • Lower limit = 3.0 - (1.96)* (1.5/sqrt(225))

= 2.804

  • Upper limit = 3.0 + (1.96)* (1.5/ sqrt( 225))

= 3.196

slide18

Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing

State of Null Hypothesis Decision

in the Population Accept H0 Reject H0

H0 is true Correct--no error Type I error

H0 is false Type II error Correct--no error

testing a hypothesis about a distribution
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT A DISTRIBUTION

CHI-SQUARE TEST:

  • TEST FOR SIGNIFICANCE IN THE ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
  • COMPARE OBSERVED FREQUENCIES WITH EXPECTED FREQUENCIES
  • “GOODNESS OF FIT”
chi square test
CHI-SQUARE TEST
  • Use Table A.4 to obtain Critical Value
  • Degrees of Freedom = Number of Possible Responses - 1
  • Reject Null Hypothesis if

Chi-Square > Critical Value

slide22

UNIVARIATE CHI-SQUARE TEST

EXAMPLE: 60 Aware, 40 Unaware

X2 = (60 - 50)2 + (40 – 50)2 = 4

50 50

DF = 2 – 1 = 1

CV = 3.84

X2 > CV  Reject Null Hypothesis

slide23

SCALE DETERMINES MEASURE

Measure of

Central Measure of

Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion

Nominal Mode None

Ordinal Median Percentile

Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation