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Essentials of Marketing Research. Chapter 7: Survey Research. SURVEYS ASK RESPONDENTS FOR INFORMATION USING VERBAL OR WRITTEN QUESTIONING RESPONDENTS = A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF PEOPLE. SURVEYS. Standardization Ease of Administration Ability to tap the “unseen”

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essentials of marketing research

Essentials of Marketing Research

Chapter 7:

Survey Research

surveys
SURVEYS ASK RESPONDENTS FOR INFORMATION USING VERBAL OR WRITTEN QUESTIONING

RESPONDENTS = A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF PEOPLE

SURVEYS
advantages of surveys
Standardization

Ease of Administration

Ability to tap the “unseen”

Suitability for statistical analysis

Sensitivity to subgroup differences

Quick, Inexpensive

Efficient, Accurate

Flexible

Advantages of Surveys
problems
POOR DESIGN

IMPROPER EXECUTION

Research Manager’s Task =

Total Error Minimization

PROBLEMS
slide5

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Random Sampling

Error

Total Error

Systematic Error (bias)

systematic error
SYSTEMATIC ERROR RESULTS FROM SOME IMPERFECT ASPECT OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN OR FROM A MISTAKE IN THE EXECUTION OF THE RESEARCHSYSTEMATIC ERROR
slide8

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Administrative

Error

Systematic Error (bias)

orNon-sampling bias

Respondent

Error

sample bias
SAMPLE BIAS - WHEN THE RESULTS OF A SAMPLE SHOW A PERSISTENT TENDENCY TO DEVIATE IN ONE DIRECTION FROM THE TRUE VALUE OF THE POPULATION PARAMETERSAMPLE BIAS
slide10

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Non-response

Error

Respondent

Error

Response

Bias

respondent error
A CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE BIAS RESULTING FROM SOME RESPONDENT ACTION OR INACTION

NONRESPONSE BIAS

RESPONSE BIAS

RESPONDENT ERROR
nonresponse error
NONRESPONDENTS - PEOPLE WHO REFUSE TO COOPERATE

NOT-AT-HOMES

SELF-SELECTION BIAS

OVER REPRESENTS EXTREME POSITIONS

UNDER REPRESENTED INDIFFERENT

NONRESPONSE ERROR
slide13

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Deliberate

Falsification

Response

Bias

Unconscious

Misrepresentation

response bias
A BIAS THAT OCCURS WHEN RESPONDENTS TEND TO ANSWER QUESTIONS WITH A CERTAIN SLANT THAT CONSCIOUSLY OR UNCONSCIOUSLY MISREPRESENT THE TRUTHRESPONSE BIAS
slide15

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Acquiescence bias (agree with all Qs)

Extremity bias (always extreme response)

Interviewer bias (interviewer presence)

Auspices bias (halo affect)

Social desirability bias

slide16

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Administrative

Error

Systematic Error (bias)

Respondent

Error

slide18

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Data Processing Error

Sample Selection Error

Interviewer Error

Interviewer Cheating

communicating with respondents
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS

DOOR-TO-DOOR

SHOPPING MALL INTERCEPTS

TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS

SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES

COMMUNICATING WITH RESPONDENTS
slide21

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection Moderate to fast

Geographical Flexibility Limited to moderate

Respondent Cooperation Excellent

Versatility of Questioning Quite versatile

slide22

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Questionnaire Length Long

Item Non-response Low

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer High

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate

slide23

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Difficult

Cost Highest

Special Features Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible

slide24

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection Fast

Geographical Flexibility Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation Moderate to low

Versatility of Questioning Extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length Moderate to Long

slide25

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Item Non-response Medium

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Highest

Influence of Answers

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate to high

slide26

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Difficult

Follow-up

Cost Moderate to high

Special Features Taste test, viewing of TV Commercials possible

slide28

MAIL SURVEYS

Speed of Data Collection Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate

Versatility of Questioning Highly standardized format

slide29

MAIL SURVEYS

Questionnaire Length Varies depending on incentive

Item Non-response High

Possibility of Respondent Highest--no interviewer

Misunderstanding present for clarification

Degree of Interviewer None--interviewer absent

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Not applicable

slide30

MAIL SURVEYS

Anonymity of Respondent High

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy, but takes time

Cost Lowest

slide31

How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys

  • Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter
  • Money Helps
  • - As a token of appreciation
  • - For a charity
  • Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions
  • Follow Up
  • Keying questionnaires with codes
  • Advanced Notification
  • Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution
ways to increase mail survey response
Foot-in-the-door

Personalization

Anonymity

Response deadline

Incentives

Length of survey

Survey size, reproduction and color

Type of postage

outgoing

return envelopes

Ways to Increase Mail Survey Response
self administered questionnaires
MAIL

PLACE OF BUSINESS

DROP-OFF

COMPUTERIZED

E-MAIL

INTERNET

OTHER VARIATIONS

SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES
slide35

Telephone Surveys

Speed of Data Collection Very fast

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Good

Versatility of Questioning Moderate

slide36

Telephone Surveys

Questionnaire Length ModerateItem Non-response MediumPossibility of Respondent Average

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Moderate

Influence on Answer

Supervision of Interviewers High, especially with central location WATS interviewing

WATS: Wide-Area Telecommunications Service

slide37

Telephone Surveys

Anonymity of Respondent Moderate

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy

Cost Low to moderate

Special Features Fieldwork and supervision

of data collection are

simplified; quite adaptable

to computer technology

factors determining choice of survey method
Researcher’s Resources and Objectives

Time horizon

Budget

Desired quality of data collected

Generalizability vs. Completeness

Factors Determining Choice of Survey Method
factors determining choice of survey method42
Respondent Characteristics

Incidence rate (% in target population)

Willingness to participate (suspicion, privacy, interest)

Ability to participate (time, qualified)

Diversity of respondents (problems with selection or response probabilities)

Factors Determining Choice of Survey Method
factors determining choice of survey method43
Question Characteristics

Complexity of tasks (or props needed)

Amount of information per respondent (and type of information needed)

Topic sensitivity (e.g., hygiene, charity contributions, illicit behaviors)

Factors Determining Choice of Survey Method
potential survey topics
Attitudes

attitude comes before behavior

three parts:

what a person knows about a topic

awareness (aided and unaided recall)

how a person feels about a topic

positive/negative and intensity of feeling

likelihood the person will take action based on the attitude

past, present and future behavior

Potential Survey Topics
potential survey topics45
Image

ask what characteristics are most important to the subject

comparison across groups to reveal differences

Decisions

What was the process used to make the decision?

What information sources were used?

What criteria was used for evaluation?

Potential Survey Topics
potential survey topics46
Needs (or Wants)

Needs, desires or preferences

Find out relative importance of needs.

Behavior

what respondents did or did not do

the timing of the behavior

the persistency of the behavior

Potential Survey Topics
potential survey topics47
Lifestyles

lifestyle patterns identified by activities, interests, opinions and possessions of the respondents

Affiliations

family groups

reference groups

Potential Survey Topics
potential survey topics48
Demographics

Variables such as age, gender, income, marital status, education, employment, etc.

demographic groups often differ significantly on issues

demographics can be used to identify market segments

Potential Survey Topics
survey trends
Over sampling of some populations

Privacy issues

New Technology

fax

e-mail

internet

virtual reality

Survey Trends