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Essentials of Marketing Research. Exploratory Research Chapter 5: Audhesh Paswan, Ph.D. Exploratory Research:. Research Design - I. Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights. Characteristics: Flexible, Versatile, Unstructured, Often the Front End of total Research Design,

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essentials of marketing research

Essentials of Marketing Research

Exploratory Research

Chapter 5:

Audhesh Paswan, Ph.D.

research design i
Exploratory Research:Research Design - I

Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights.

Characteristics: Flexible, Versatile, Unstructured,

Often the Front End of total Research Design,

Small Non-representative Sample,

Analyses typically qualitative.

Findings: Tentative, typically followed by further

exploratory, descriptive or causal research.

Methods: Literature Search, Focus Groups, Experience

Surveys, Pilot Surveys, Expert Interviews, Case

Studies, Reliance on Secondary Data.

exploratory research
INITIAL RESEARCH CONDUCTED TO CLARIFY AND DEFINE THE NATURE OF A PROBLEM

DOES NOT PROVIDE CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE

SUBSEQUENT RESEARCH EXPECTED

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
exploratory research1
Unstructured, informal, and sometimes intuitive

Used for -

Gain background information.

Define terms.

Clarify problems and hypotheses.

Establish research priorities.

Diagnose a situation

Screening of alternatives

Discover new ideas

Exploratory Research
what is exploratory research
WHAT IS EXPLORATORY RESEARCH?

QUALITATIVE

DATA

QUANTITATIVE

DATA

exploratory research techniques
Qualitative Research

Experience surveys

Case analysis

Pilot Studies:

Projective techniques.

Focus groups

Depth Interview.

Other qualitative techniques (secondary data & observation, etc.)??

Exploratory Research Techniques
slide7
“Knowing when to use qualitative research, and importantly when not to is a crucial skill in a research manager’s judgment.”

Malcolm Baker, President

The B/R/S Group, Inc.

experience surveys
ASK KNOWLEDGEABLE INDIVIDUALS

ABOUT A PARTICULAR RESEARCH PROBLEM

MOST ARE QUITE WILLING

EXPERIENCE SURVEYS
slide9

“If you wish to know the road up the

mountain, you must ask the man who

goes back and forth on it.”

-- Zenrinkusi

case study method
INTENSELY INVESTIGATES ONE OR A FEW SITUATIONS SIMILAR TO THE PROBLEM

INVESTIGATE IN DEPTH

CAREFUL STUDY

MAY REQUIRE COOPERATION

CASE STUDY METHOD
pilot study
A COLLECTIVE TERM

ANY SMALL SCALE EXPLORATORY STUDY THAT USES SAMPLING

BUT DOES NOT APPLY RIGOROUS STANDARDS

PILOT STUDY
projective techniques
WORD ASSOCIATION TESTS

SENTENCE COMPLETION METHOD

THIRD-PERSON TECHNIQUE

ROLE PLAYING

T.A.T (and PICTURE FRUSTRATION VERSION OF TAT)

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
slide13

“A man is least himself when he talks

in his own person; when given a mask

he will tell the truth.”

--Oscar Wilde

word association
SUBJECT IS PRESENTED WITH A LIST OF WORDS

ASKED TO RESPOND WITH FIRST WORD THAT COMES TO MIND

WORD ASSOCIATION
slide16

SENTENCE COMPLETION

People who drink beer are ______________________

A man who drinks light beer is ___________________

Imported beer is most liked by ___________________

The woman in the commercial ____________________

focus group interviews
UNSTRUCTURED

FREE FLOWING

GROUP INTERVIEW

START WITH BROAD TOPIC AND FOCUS IN ON SPECIFIC ISSUES

FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS
group composition
6 TO 10 PEOPLE

RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS

SIMILAR LIFESTYLES AND EXPERIENCES

GROUP COMPOSITION
focus groups
Small group of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion about some topic.

Goal is to draw out ideas, feelings, and experiences about a certain issues that would be obscured by more structured methods.

Focus groups
focus group objectives
To generate ideas.

To understand consumer vocabulary.

To reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes.

To understand findings from quantitative studies.

Focus Group Objectives
focus group moderator
The “Man (or woman) with the plan”!

Conducts the entire session and guides the flow of group discussion.

Must have excellent observation, interpersonal, and communication skills, Interacts, listens, develops rapport.

Must be sensitive to participants situations and comments, promotes interaction.

Must be prepared.

Focus Group Moderator
reporting and use of focus group results
Some sense must be made by translating the qualitative statements of participants into categories.

Demographic and buyer behavior characteristics should be judged against the target market profile.

Reporting and Use of Focus Group Results
focus group pros and cons
Advantages

Generate fresh ideas

Allow clients to observe the group

Generally versatile

Works well with special respondents.

Disadvantages

May not represent the population

Interpretation is subjective

Expensive

Focus Group Pros and Cons
exploratory research techniques1
Quantitative Research

Secondary data analyses

Observation

Physiological measurement

Exploratory Research Techniques
observation techniques
Observation methods - researcher relies on his or her powers of observation rather than communicating with respondent

Direct versus Indirect

Disguised versus Undisguised

Structured versus Unstructured

Human versus Mechanical

Observation Techniques
direct or indirect
Direct observation

Observing behavior as it occurs

Indirect observation

Observe effects or results of behavior

Use archives or physical traces

Archives - secondary data

Physical traces - tangible evidence of some event (e.g., garbology)

Direct or Indirect
disguised or undisguised
Disguised - unaware of observation

“Secret shopper”

One-way mirrors

Hidden cameras

Undisguised

Laboratory settings

“Ride withs”

“Knowing” may bias the responses.

Disguised or Undisguised
structured or unstructured
Structured - researchers agree beforehand which behaviors are to be observed and recorded.

Unstructured - No restrictions, all behavior is observed.

Observer must be thoroughly briefed on the areas of general concern.

Structured or Unstructured
human or mechanical
Human - a person observes

Mechanical - a machine observes

turnstiles, scanners, people meters, etc.

Human or Mechanical
when to use observation
Short time interval - involves activities that generally occur over a short time span.

Public behavior - setting where researchers can readily observe.

Faulty recall - when actions or activities are so repetitive that the respondent cannot recall specifics.

When to use observation
advantages
Subjects are unaware*

React in a natural manner*

No chance for recall error

Less costly and more accurate* Assuming disguised observation.

Advantages . . .
limitations
Only a small number of subjects are studied (Dracula Syndrome - suck too much out of a few subjects).

Is sample representative?

Motivations, attitudes, and internal conditions are not observed.

Multiple observers (inconsistency)

Subjective Interpretation

Limitations . . .
other techniques
Depth interviews

Protocol analysis - Decision maker’s view

Projective techniques

Shopping basket

Personality completion

Cartoon or balloon test

Role-playing activity

Physiological measurement - Galvanometer, Pupilometer, etc.

Other Techniques
next stage qua nt itative research
Quantitative research

involves structured questions

predetermined response options

large number of respondents involved.

Sizable representative sample of the population

Formalized data gathering procedure

Specific purpose

Next Stage - Quantitative Research
qualitative or quantitative research
Does it have to be one or the other?

It depends . . .maybe both - Pluralistic Research.

Qualitative or Quantitative Research?