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CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815. LED BY PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTERNICH PURPOSE Restore Europe to its pre-1789 status quo CREATION OF CONCERT OF EUROPE Peacetime alliance Periodic summit meeting to work out difference Military intervention to put down revolution or to prevent revolutionary outbreak

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congress of vienna 1815
CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815
  • LED BY PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTERNICH
  • PURPOSE
    • Restore Europe to its pre-1789 status quo
  • CREATION OF CONCERT OF EUROPE
    • Peacetime alliance
    • Periodic summit meeting to work out difference
    • Military intervention to put down revolution or to prevent revolutionary outbreak
  • CONGRESS SET UP SYSTEM DESIGNED TO DESTROY MEMORY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES IT HAD UNLEASHED
revolution of 1830
REVOLUTION OF 1830
  • CHARLES X
    • Stupid
    • Refused to compromise with reality of French Revolution
    • Provoked uprising in Paris
  • THREE GLORIOUS DAYS – JULY 1830
    • Charles X forced to flee to England

Charles X

the july monarchy
THE JULY MONARCHY
  • Middle Class selects Louis Philippe as new “King of the French”
    • Related to Bourbon royal family but sympathetic to middle class Selected over opposition of common people who wanted a Republic
    • Constitutional monarchy with more liberal monarch
  • News of July Revolution in France sparks revolts elsewhere
  • Lesson: artificial status quo set up by Congress of Vienna could be successfully challenged, given the right circumstances

Louis Philippe, 1830-1848

opposition to the july monarchy
OPPOSITION TO THE JULY MONARCHY
  • GROWING OPPOSITION TO JULY MONARCHY
    • Too favorable to middle class
    • Workers (many socialists due to ill-effects of early Industrial Revolution)
    • Republicans (young college students who favored republican form of government)
    • Peasants remain apathetic and even hostile to socialists
  • BANQUET CAMPAIGN
    • Way to mobilize support given lack of other legal means
revolution again
REVOLUTION AGAIN
  • OUTBREAK OF REVOLUTION IN PARIS IN FEBRUARY 1848
    • Promoted by government cancellation of big banquet in Paris
    • February 23-24
    • Louis Philippe forced to flee to England
the second republic
THE SECOND REPUBLIC
  • Republicans establish Provisional Government
    • Run France until constitutional convention was elected and did its job
    • Contained several socialist members
  • Problem: Republic will not survive without support of peasants, who were hostile to socialists
  • Result: socialists squeezed out of government and socialist programs abandoned
trouble
TROUBLE
  • JUNE DAYS
    • Socialist workers in Paris rise up to halt slipping position
    • Crushed in one week
    • Destroys socialists as a political factor for 20 years
  • NEW CONSTITUTION IMPLEMENTED
    • Universal manhood suffrage
    • Elected president (one 7 year term)
    • Single house legislature (800 members)
louis napoleon bonaparte
LOUIS NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  • PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
    • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins landslide victory
    • December 1848
    • Uses presidential office to become sole ruler of France
  • COUP D’ETAT OF DECEMBER 1851
    • Uses troops to disband legislature and proclaim himself Prince President for Life
    • Proclaimed himself emperor one year later–NAPOLEON III
second empire 1851 1870
SECOND EMPIRE, 1851-1870
  • France enjoyed prosperity – otherwise, a disaster
  • Manipulated political system
  • Adventurous and foolhardy foreign policy
  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870
    • Defeat and capture of Napoleon III
    • September 4, 1870 – Second Empire overthrown
birth of the third republic
BIRTH OF THE THIRD REPUBLIC
  • March – May 1871 Paris Commune
  • The Third Republic
    • Parliamentary regime with most power concentrated in the lower house of a two-house legislature
    • Plagued by instability and scandal
    • 1871-1940
1848 in the austrian empire
1848 IN THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
  • NEWS FROM PARIS SPARKS REVOLT IN VIENNA
  • INDEPENDENCE REVOLTS ERUPT IN HUNGARY, BOHEMIA, AND ITALY
  • DIVISIONS AMONG REVOLUTIONARIES ALLOW CONSERVATIVES TO SUCCESSFULLY COUNTERATTACK
  • EMPIRE ATTEMPTS SEVERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REORGANIZATIONS AFTER 1849
    • DUAL MONARCHY (1867)
    • REMAINS REACTIONARY AND ARCHAIC
creation of italy
CREATION OF ITALY
  • LED BY KINGDOM OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA
  • CAMILLO DI CAVOUR
      • ENERGETIC AND CLEVER
      • EMPLOYED WHATEVER WOULD WORK
        • DIPLOMACY
        • CLEVER MANUEVERS
        • WAR
  • KINGDOM OF ITALY CREATED BY 1870
  • UNITED AND INDEPENDENT KINGDOM OF ITALY NEVER LIVES UP TO HOPE
germany in 1848
GERMANY IN 1848
  • SPARKED BY NEWS FROM PARIS
  • REVOLTS IN MANY GERMAN CAPITALS—INCLUDING BERLIN
  • FORMATION OF FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY
  • DIVISIONS AMONG REVOLUTIONARIES AND MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLY ALLOW CONSERVATIVES TO COUNTERATTACK
  • REVOLUTION DEAD IN GERMANY BY 1849
creation of the second reich
CREATION OF THE SECOND REICH
  • UNIFICATION MOVEMENT LED BY PRUSSIA
  • OTTO VON BISMARCK
  • BLOOD AND IRON
    • War with Denmark (1864)
    • War with Austrian Empire (1866)
    • Franco-Prussian War (1870)
  • JANUARY 1871—SECOND REICH ESTABLISHED
    • Constitutional monarchy on surface
    • Old-fashioned monarchy underneath
    • Most powerful state in Europe by 1914
summary
SUMMARY
  • Revolutions of 1848 proved system devised by Congress of Vienna was dead
  • But the Revolutions cannot be considered an unqualified success
  • Basic reason for failure was lack of unity within revolutionary movements
    • Alliance of middle-class republicans and socialist workers
    • Cooperated as long as they had a common goal
    • Unity collapsed once goal had been attained
      • Became divided over what to do next
      • Unable to resist conservative counterattacks