Congress of Vienna 1814-15
The “Dancing” Congress • Delegates from all over Europe invited • Kept busy with parties, balls, etc. while main delegates made a peace treaty. • Mostly from Austria, Prussia, Russia, France and Britain
Major representatives!!! • Austria- Klemens von Metternich (and host) • Britain- Robert Castlereagh • France- Charles Tallyrand • Russia- Czar Alexander I • Also invited Belgium and Netherlands for future defense against France.
Goals of the Congress • Reinstate Europe to Pre Revolution and Pre Napoleon character • Promote Conservative ideals. • Create a league to defend against liberalism • Reinstate monarchies • Defend against French aggression • Give compensation to countries who defeated Napoleon
Terms of “Concert of Europe” • Restore the Bourbon monarchy– Louis 18 • No war reparations for France– WHY?? • France lost territory in Italy, along Rhine, in Belgium, and a few colonial possessions • Set up Dutch monarchy • Prussia given territory along Rhine “Sentinel on the Rhine”
Terms of “Concert of Europe” continued • Britain compensated with colonies and strategic outposts they won during the wars • Austria gave up territory in Belgium but took Venetia & Lombardy in Italy and former Polish lands • Russia and Prussia almost go to war over claim to possession!!
War between Prussia & Russia averted! • Russia had taken Finland but really wanted to restore Poland and create a monarchy with Alex as Czar! • Prussia would give up Polish territory but only if they got large and wealthy Saxony! • Metternich and Castlereagh feared unbalance if this occurred.
War between Prussia & Russia averted! (continued) • Jan 3 1815- Fr, Br & Aus. Sign secret alliance against PR and Rus should war break out • Metternich moderates to avoid war & Pr Rus accept compromise: • Russia establishes a small Polish Kingdom and Prussia get 2/3 of Saxony
Napoleon escapes—100 days • Feb 1815 -OH NO!! • Quadruple alliance comes together again to defeat Napoleon- (Exiled to St Helena now!) • Quadruple Alliance agrees to meet periodically to discuss common interest!! • Goals are to stomp out liberalism where it rears it ugly head and keep France in check
Holy Alliance Sept 1815 • Brain storm of Czar Alex I • Proclaims intent of 3 Eastern monarchs, PR, Rus and Aus to rule exclusively on Christian principles and work together to maintain peace and justice. ( on their terms) • Castlereagh refuses to sign- calls it “a piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense” Liberal movement rally against this until 1848
SOOOO---- • Who wins?? And why??? • Who is in control??? And why??? Unicorns rule!!! • SEAN MCDONALDS <33 comrade craigers