biodiesel basics for the beginner l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 186 Views
  • Uploaded on

Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner. Chelsea Jenkins and Al Christopher Virginia Clean Cities Hampton Roads Clean Cities Coalition Biodiesel Public Education Forum May 30, 2007 Hollins University. Overview. Brief overview what is Clean Cities? Biodiesel Basics Advantages/disadvantages

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner' - issac


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
biodiesel basics for the beginner

Biodiesel Basics for the Beginner

Chelsea Jenkins and Al Christopher

Virginia Clean Cities

Hampton Roads Clean Cities Coalition

Biodiesel Public Education Forum

May 30, 2007

Hollins University

slide2

Overview

  • Brief overview what is Clean Cities?
  • Biodiesel Basics
    • Advantages/disadvantages
    • WVO, SVO, homebrew, commercial, ASTM
    • Users, availability
slide3

Energy InSecurity

THE U.S. IMPORTS OVER ONE-HALF OF ITS PETROLEUM

TRANSPORTATION PETROLEUM USE – 67% OF OVERALL USE

TRANSPORTATION IS 97% DEPENDENT ON PETROLEUM

Source: EIA AEO 2006

slide4

Clean Cities

    • National US DoE voluntary program to promote energy independence in transportation
    • 80 Coalitions nationwide
    • One designated Coalition in Virginia (Hampton Roads)
    • Statewide effort ongoing
    • DoE Website:
    • http://www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/
    • Virginia Clean Cities:
    • http://www.hrccc.org
slide5

Biofuels

  • Fossil Fuel: a hydrocarbon fuel, such as petroleum, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time.
    • Coal, Oil, Natural Gas
  • Biofuel: Any fuel that derives from biomass – recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts
    • Biodiesel, Ethanol
  • Primary drivers behind introducing biofuels include:
  • Reduce dependency on fossil-fuels
  • Reduce GHG emissions (reduce impact on health, environment)
  • Improve energy security
  • Contribute to rural development through domestic production
slide6

What is Biodiesel

1. Mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids (i.e. methyl or ethyl esters)

2. A diesel replacement fuel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled cooking grease

  • Biodiesel Blend: mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel
    • BXX = volume XX% biodiesel
    • Most common blends are B5, B20
  • Physical properties very similar to conventional diesel
    • Must meet the quality requirements of ASTM D6751
slide8
SVO/WVO

Vegetable oil can be used in diesel engine

Much more viscous

Doesn’t burn the same

Many studies have found SVO can lead to engine carbon deposits, reducing engine life or increasing maintenance costs

Successful SVO use is documented, but use requires considerable modifications to diesel equipment

SVO has strong following

Elsbett single and double tank SVO fuel systems from Germany

Single tank system seems to get best reviews: The kit includes modified injector nozzles, stronger glow plugs, dual fuel heating, temperature controls and parallel fuel filters.

ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS AND COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CONVERSION

What Is Not Biodiesel?

slide9
“Waste Oil”

Similar to confusion between biodiesel and WVO

Referred to as used motor oil or waste engine oil

Used oil can be re-refined into base stock for lubricting oil

If you recycle 2 gals of used oil, it can generate enough electricity to run average household for almost 24 hours (API, http://www.recycleoil.org/)

Waste motor oil furnaces (UL listed, EPA approved)

www.cleanburn.com

What Is Not Biodiesel?

slide10

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Easy: Transparent to end-user, easy to implement
      • LDV/HDV, marine, underground mining
      • No increased vehicle equipment cost
      • Minimal infrastructure impact (blending, storage, availability, vehicles)
slide11

pumpkin seed

algae

coconut

hemp

mustard seed

rapeseed

avocado

coffee

jatropha

oats

safflower

brazil nuts

coriander

jojoba

oil palm

sesame

calendula

corn (maize)

kenaf

olives

soybean

cashew nut

cotton

linseed (flax)

opium poppy

sunflowers

castor beans

euphorbia

lupine

peanuts

cocoa (cacao)

hazelnuts

macadamia nuts

pecan nuts

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Domestic (or can be): MADE IN USA
    • It Can Stimulate Local Economies andSupport Farmers
      • value added product, supports rural economies, protects farmland from development pressures
slide12

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Renewable, Biodegradable, & Nontoxic
    • It’s Efficient: Very favorable energy balance, ~3.2 to 1 (debatable, but most find more efficient than petroleum)
    • It’s Engine Friendly: Superior engine performance
      • High flash point: 260°F v 117°F
      • Lubricity properties
      • Higher cetane rating
slide13

DIESEL

BIODIESEL

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Healthier: Lower emissions (Example: DDC Series 50), US DoA, US DoE
      • Carbon monoxide: 38% lower
      • Unburned HC: 83% lower
      • Oxides of Nitrogen: still debated
      • Particulates: 49% lower
      • Smoke and odor are much better
      • PAH, nPAH, & air toxics lower
    • It Contributes less to Greenhouse Gases
      • “Closed carbon cycle” – in theory
      • Still petroleum involved in agriculture process and transportation, so not entirely “closed”
slide14

Biodiesel

  • Disadvantages:
    • Increased price relative to diesel
    • Petroleum displacement potential of B20 relatively limited
    • Beginning of industry growth has caused some commodity price increases that are limiting
slide15

Biodiesel

  • Disadvantages:
    • Cold handling and storage of B100
      • soybean based biodiesel start to crystallize at 0C
    • Oxidative stability
      • old fuel can become acidic and form sediments and varnish
    • Excellent solvent
      • filter clogging during transition from petrol diesel
      • replace natural rubber components
    • Supply
slide16

Making biodiesel

  • The beauty of biodiesel is it can be made on any scale, and by any despite level of chemical processing experience
  • For a great video tutorial on how biodiesel can be made from many feedstocks, check out the JMU biodiesel conference website for 2006, “view webcast” at top, and forward to “How Biodiesel is Made” by Chris Bachmann: http://www.cisat.jmu.edu/biodiesel/conference2006.html
  • Or visit the Collaborative Biodiesel Tutorial: http://www.biodieselcommunity.org/howitsmade/ (includes recipes for beginners with pictures and detailed instructions)
  • Make sure you understand the health and safety risks involved!!!
slide17

Homebrew vs Commercial Production

Biodieselgear 60

FuelMeister

slide18

Homebrew vs Commercial Production

JMU Processor I

“Appleseed” (w/ standpipe wash tank)

www.biodieselcommunity.org

slide19

Homebrew vs Commercial

MN Biodiesel Plants

Source: http://www.mnsoy.com/biodiesel_pricing.htm

Source: www.jsonline.com/bym/news/jan06/389013.asp

slide20

Homebrew vs Commercial – Quality

  • Industry organization that defines the consensus on fuels is the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • ASTM fuel standards are the minimum accepted values for properties of the fuel to provide adequate customer satisfaction and/or protection.
  • Dec 2001 -- ASTM approved the full standard for biodiesel, with the new designation of D-6751. Standard covers pure biodiesel (B100), for blending with petrodiesel in levels up to 20% by volume. Higher levels on case-by-case basis.
  • http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/standards_and_warranties.shtm
slide21

Homebrew vs Commercial

  • No matter how it’s made (backyard or in commercial plant), out-of-spec biodiesel can result
    • NREL/NBB fuel quality testing project found at least one-third of commercial biodiesel samples pulled between November 2005 and July 2006 were out of spec for incomplete processing
  • Many homebrewers/small scale coops are making high quality biodiesel all over the US, and some are struggling as well
  • QC testing can be $1700 for full ASTM slate tests, and labs are ~$30,000 to install, and out of reach for many homebrewers
  • QUALITY IS IMPORTANT, SO ENSURE YOU ARE BUYING ASTM QUALITY FUEL OR IF PRODUCING FOR SALE THAT IT MEETS ASTM SPECS
slide22
Biodiesel production & use has grown dramatically

NBB estimates 75 million gallons in 2005

Current production capacity is more than 290 million annual gallons

More than 570 million annual gallons under construction or planned

Current U.S. avg. rack price $3.20/gal (vs. $2.40 for No. 2 diesel)

Prices pre-tax, pre-tax credit

Who Uses Biodiesel?

Who’s using it?

U.S. Postal Service

U.S. DoD, DoE, and DoA

Countless school districts, transit authorities, national parks, public utility companies, and garbage and recycling companies

Credit: Robert McCormick, NREL

slide23

Commercial Biodiesel Production Plants

Source: National Biodiesel Board

slide24

Biodiesel retail locations

Source: National Biodiesel Board (Retailers and Distributors map) http://www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/guide/default.shtm

slide25

Market Development in Virginia – B20 Fleets

VALLEY PROTEINS

2004 Fleets

US NAVY

Portsmouth

Yorktown

Westmoreland Schools

2005 Fleets

2006 Fleets

slide26

Industry Analyses

  • MORE INFORMATION
  • National Biodiesel Board: www.biodiesel.org
  • Virginia Clean Cities: www.hrccc.org
  • US Department of Energy Clean Cities: http://www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/blends/biodiesel.html
  • Iowa State University’s Biomass Energy Conversion Center (BECON): Biodiesel Short Course -
  • http://www.me.iastate.edu/biodiesel/Pages/biodiesel1.html
  • RESOURCE CD: Included as part of workshop series
slide27

Hampton Roads

Virginia

Contact Information

www.hrccc.org

Al Christopher

804-436-3867

al.christopher@hrccc.org

www.hrccc.org

Chelsea Jenkins

757-256-8528

cjenkins@hrccc.org