The DBQ for AP World History An Introduction and Overview
What is a DBQ? • DBQ = Document Based Question • Primary purpose of DBQ is not to test students’ prior knowledge of subject matter but rather to evaluate their ability to formulate and support an answer from documentary evidence. • There is no single “correct” answer; various approaches and responses are possible, depending on the students’ ability to understand the documents, communicate their significance, and construct an argument.
What is a DBQ? • The DBQ requires that students: • Read and analyze the documents individually • Contextualize them based on their analysis of all documentary evidence • Plan and construct an essay in response to the question.
The DBQ Rubric – Basic Core • Has acceptable thesis – 1 point • 3 categories • Does not simply restate prompt • Understands the basic meaning of the documents (may misinterpret one document). – 1 point • Who wrote this document? • What are they saying? • Why are they saying this? • Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document. – 2 points • How does this document relate back to the thesis?
The DBQ Rubric – Basic Core 4. Analyzes point of view in at least two documents. – 1 point • Why does the author have this opinion? • How is their opinion influenced by the attribution? 5. Analyzes documents by grouping them in two or three ways, depending on the question. – 1 point • What similarities or themes can you identify among the documents? • Culturally, chronologically, thematically (SPICE) 6. Identifies and explains the need for one type of additional document or source - 1 point
How To Do the DBQ • Read the prompt and identify key phrases • What topic is the prompt focused on? • What is the prompt asking you to do?
2. Unpack the Prompt • Break the prompt down into smaller chunks • What are the questions that the prompt is asking? • What immediate categories are suggested? • What question do I need to address in my thesis? • Consider the key phrase!
3. Read through and unpack the documents • Who is speaking? (attribution) • Why is this person significant? • What is their POV/perspective? • Is this document reliable or accurate? • What is the tone of this document? • How could you potentially group this document (SPICE, similarities, etc…)
Group the documents • Look back at the categories you brainstormed during step 3 • What are the best groups for this DBQ topic? Choose two or three • A group must have at least TWO DOCUMENTS • You can use a document in more than one category • Plug each document into one of the groups • Do not neglect any docs!
Write your thesis Four-Step Process • Restate prompt • Flip • Define groups • Develop time/relationships Using the following documents, analyze the relationship between cricket and politics in South Asia from 1880 to 2005. Identify an additional type of document and explain how it would help your analysis.
Thesis Demo • Restatement: • The relationship between cricket and politics in South Asia from 1880-2005 revolved around political control, treasured cultural traditions, and nationalism. 2) Flip: • Political control, treasured cultural traditions, and nationalism emerged out of the relationship between cricket and politics in South Asia from 1880-2005. • This is still a basic thesis as it uses the “phrase” in the thesis and has undeveloped groups.
Thesis Demo 3) Work on groups: • Political control British want this over South Asians • Cultural traditions eliminate barriers • Nationalism define new national identity of India under Britain, and then India after independence Who is using cricket? Why? • The British use it originally over the Indians • Ultimately, the Indians adopt it for themselves
Thesis Demo 4) Develop relationships and time periods in final thesis: The British by 1880 had used cricket as a way to gain political control of South Asia, yet the sport was adopted by South Asians in defining their nationalism and in eliminating cultural barriers to unification by 2005.
6. Write your body paragraphs. a) One document should demonstrate connection to group topic b) Another document should be analyzed for POV c) Address question of additional document Each document needs to be connected back to the thesis!
Using the Documents • Documents are chosen on the basis of both the information they convey about the topic and the perspective that they offer. • Documents should be used to substantiate and illustrate points made in the essay. • Students may group documents chronologically, culturally, or thematically, as appropriate, to demonstrate their ability to analyze sources, but they are not expected to have particular knowledge of every document’s author or topic or to include knowledge outside of the documents in order to receive the highest score.
How to Cite Documents • Winston Churchill, in a letter to Franklin D. Roosevelt, argued that . . . (Doc 7). • Tokugawa Ieyasu felt that . . . (Doc 1). • The graph reveals an increase in cotton production after the introduction of machines (Doc 4). • DO NOT begin with “In Document 8 . . . “
Understanding vs. Using for Evidence Christopher Columbus states that he was “shocked and appalled” by the nakedness of the indigenous people (Doc 4). This statement reveals that you understand Document 4. Though this statement is important for letting the reader know you understood what you have read, you are doing nothing but retelling what you have just read; this statement does not count as evidence.
Understanding vs. Using for Evidence Christopher Columbus states that he was “shocked and appalled” by the nakedness of the indigenous people (Doc 4). Thus, we see Christopher Columbus imposing his European cultural ideas regarding clothing and decorum upon a group of people who are foreign to those ideas. Clearly, pre-conceived cultural notions were at play during some of the first meetings of the Old and New World. These statement reveals that you both understand Document 4 and are using this document for evidence. The first sentence is a mere regurgitation of what Document 4 states; though this is not an eloquent way of indicating to the reader you understand Document 4, it does the job. The next statement is YOUR INTERPRETATION of the document. You are pulling out what is significant about the document and sharing it with the reader.
Point of View • Read the Document and Source Information • Who is writing the document and when? • What is the purpose of the document and intended audience? • Determine the POV of the author • Who is saying what to whom and why? • What is the author’s tone regarding the subject? • Write a POV statement • Identify who is speaking and what their tone is • Explain what they believe • Why do they believe that? Is it tied it to their group/classification? Remember position informs opinion. Think about the dress code . . . What would you think about that if you were the principal, or maybe a student? Does WHO you are change HOW you think about that issue?
Different Types of POV 1) Authorial Point of View • Show understanding of the gender, class, religion, occupation, nationality, political position, race or ethnic identity of the author and how this could influence his/her opinion. • Why did the author write what he/she had? • Example: • AikaShunsuke, as a Japanese peasant overworked, exhausted and often ill in the cotton factory, felt resentful towards the wealthyfactory managers since she saw herself and her family as exploited by these men.
Different Types of POV 2) Accuracy/Reliability • Show an understanding of the accuracy and reliability of a source by drawing attention to the ability (or lack thereof) of the author to be accurate and/or impartial. • Why did the author write what he/she had? • Example: • As a French peasant, Marie Beaufort’s diary entry about Marie-Antoinette is biased because she believed the royal family was hoarding grain that should have been made available to farmers. Thus, this document is not reliable because Beaufort likely exaggerated the evils of Marie-Antoinette.
Different Types of POV 3) Author’s Intent/Tone • Show an understanding of the author’s tone (commentary, irony, satire, etc). • Helpful for visual documents (photographs, art work, political cartoons) • Why did the author/artist write/depict what he/she had? • Example: • The political cartoonist depicted the starving peasants using the hammer and sickle (the symbol of Communism) to illustrate that it was Communism’s agricultural and economic policies that were to blame for the hardships the peasants endured.
Different Types of POV 4) Multiple POV • Show an understanding that certain authors, based on a particular quality (gender, race, ethnicity, religion, occupation, class, etc) will express a similar point of view. • Why did the author/artist write/depict what he/she had? • Example: • The Aztec and Inca Indians all believed thatthe Spanish conquistadors were being violent and cruel towards them, especially their women and children.
Additional Document • Discuss a document that you would like to see and WHY - At least 1 per paragraph - The additional document should be something that illustrates a perspective, point of view, or issue that is not represented in the document • Doesn’t have to be a document that DOES exist . . . has to be one that COULD exist. • Students get credit for the WHY
Additional Document • Call for an Additional Document • An additional document that would _____(use the phrase)_______ would be _______. • WHY? (This must help you learn more, and satisfy the prompt.) • This would reveal/show _________.
Check your work! • Go back and use the rubric to check your essay • Did you use all of the documents? • Did you analyze POV in at least two documents? • Do you have at least two groups? • Did you discuss the additional document in each paragraph?