AP World History Chapter 2 From Village Community to City State
From Foragers to Villagers Introduction • The first settlements began about 10,000 BCE • Why? Population pressures, climate change • Villages promoted agricultural productivity and cultural creativity The Citadel of Hewler in Kurdistan
From Foragers to Villagers The Agricultural Village • First began in the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) • Villages were based on the domestication of plants and animals. - different regions focused on specific plants - this was during the Neolithic (New Stone) Age. - Farming required a different toolkit - Pottery, ceramics, become important Ancient plows
From Foragers to Villagers The Agricultural Village • Tools for cutting, chopping, grinding, digging, fishing, transport, ect.. • What were the uses for pottery • Pottery design and decoration identify the people in villages
From Village to Cities The First Cities • Appeared on sites of early villages • Were the result of innovation rather than diffusion • Appeared in Seven separate places on the globe • Mesopotamia was the earliest Flood season in Mesopotamia Gold cup - Mesopotamia
From Village to City The First Cities New Innovations transform human life • Irrigation • Walled enclosures • The Wheel • Metal Work • Temples • Trade Ziggurat at Ur City walls of Kush
From Village to City The First Cities Innovations • New Ideas v. Diffusion • How do we run the City? (Bureaucracy) • Armies, Diplomats • Specialized Organizations, centralized rule. Powerful armies
From Village to City The First Cities • The first writing develops for record keeping • Religion becomes very important • Class Structures • Occupational Specialization • Monumental structures are started Cuneiform stamp
The City-State Sumer: The First Big City • The Sumerians created civilization in S. Mesopotamia around 5000 BCE • They spoke a Semitic language • They were not the first people to live there
The City-State The Growth of the City-State • City-State: A small independent state consisting of several cities. • urban center and surrounding agricultural farms. • Populations from 5,000 -40,000 . • Size of population and farms led to gov’t controls
The City-State Growth of the City-State Religion • Religious leaders supported city leaders • Temples were built at great expense to reflect power and to impress the people • Temple community was large (as many as 1,200 people) • Rituals and public ceremonies reaffirmed power Sumerian Religious statue
The City-State Religion • Being a priest was a good job. • It had privileges • Religion conferred Divine power to the King. • Royal burials were major events with huge displays of wealth.
Growth of the City-State Occupational Specialization and Class Structure • Artisans flourished in pottery and stamp seals • Astronomers created an accurate calendar • Gang labor created irrigation canals and temples • The wagon wheel for transport and trade
Growth of the City-State Trade & Markets • Sumer had lots of food but few other resources • Traded as far as Indus R. • Women sold cheese, bread, ale, at local markets. • Trade & artisans work show specialization of labor
Growth of the City-State Monumental Architecture • Sumerians took great pride in the size and beauty of the city and it’s monuments • Artwork such statues, bas-reliefs, and pottery reinforce the power of the leaders • Monuments help tell the history of the city.
Growth of the City-State Literature and Law Epic of Gilgamesh is the best example of Sumerian literature. Themes • The lure of the city • Friendship & physical strength • Ambition, courage, glory • Importance of metallurgy • Use of natural resources into objects for trade
Growth of the City-State Law Code of Hammurabi (1750) pg 59 • Invented by Babylonian King Hammurabi • Property laws • Criminal punishment • Marriage laws
City State The First Cities: What difference do they make? • Cities started important accomplishments in human culture. • Economic growth, trade • Organized life & city admin (gov’t) • Fostered new tech • Legal codes, law. Literature, art • NOT ALL CITIES SUCCEEDED.