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OCULAR ADNEXA. OCULAR ANNEXAS. CONJUNCTIVA EYELID LACRIMAL SISTEM ORBIT. THE EYELIDS. Congenital abnormalities of eyelids Abnormalities of eyelids shape and position Inflamation of eyelids Tumors of eyelids. 4 Blepharoptosis – dropping of the upper lid.

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Ocular annexas
OCULAR ANNEXAS

  • CONJUNCTIVA

  • EYELID

  • LACRIMAL SISTEM

  • ORBIT


The eyelids
THE EYELIDS

  • Congenital abnormalities of eyelids

  • Abnormalities of eyelids shape and position

  • Inflamation of eyelids

  • Tumors of eyelids


.

  • 4Blepharoptosis – dropping of the upper lid


  • 6Epicanthus – a vertical skin fold occurring in the medial canthus that conceals the medial angle and the caruncle.


Abnormalities of shape and position
Abnormalities of shape and position

  • Entropion

  • Ectropion

  • Blepharoptosis


Entropion
Entropion

  • eyelid margin is turned inward so that the lashes irritate the eye which causes corneal epithelial defects, conjunctival injection and tearing, sometimes leading to secondary infection of the cornea or conjunctiva


Ectropion
Ectropion

  • eyelid margin is turned away from the eye so that the conjunctiva is exposed

    • atonic

    • cicatricial

    • spastic

    • allergic


Blepharoptosis
Blepharoptosis

  • condition in which the upper eyelid drops and the palpebral fissure is narrowed

  • Surgical correction of blepharoptosis:

    • resection of the conjunctiva, tarsus, Muller muscle corrects up to 3 mm of blepharoptosis;

    • resection of levatorpalpebrae muscle is recommended in moderate blepharoptosis;

    • when the levatorpalpebrae muscle function is absent the upper eyelid is suspended to the frontalis muscle by means of fascia lata or synthetic material.


Inflamation of eyelids
Inflamation of eyelids

  • Blepharitis

  • Meibomitis

  • Hordeolum

  • Chalasion

  • Dermatitis


Blepharitis
Blepharitis

  • cronic inflamation of the eyelid margin

  • Treatment:

    • lid hygiene

    • warm compresses

    • antibiotics

    • corticosteroids


Meibomitis
Meibomitis

  • passive retention of secretion by meibomian glands

  • Treatment: eyelid margin massage with moist washcloth


Hordeolum
Hordeolum

  • acute supurative inflammation of the follicle of an eyelash or the associated gland of Zeiss (sebaceous) or Mall (sweat)


Chalasion
Chalasion

  • chronic inflammatory lipogranuloma of a meibomian gland

  • Clinical

    • gradual painless swelling of the gland

    • increase of size chalasion may cause pressure on the globe and astigmatism

    • sometimes it may become secondary infected.


Dermatitis
Dermatitis

  • large variety of microbial organisms can infect the skin of eyelid

    • Impetigo

    • Erysipelas

    • Anthrax

    • malignant pustule

    • tuberculosis,leprosy,

    • herpes zoster,

    • verucavulgaris,

    • molluscumcontagiosum


Tumors of eyelids
Tumors of eyelids

  • Benign tumors

    • papilloma

    • cutaneous horn

    • seborrehoeickeratosis

    • keratoachantoma

    • hemangioma

    • melanotic nevi

  • Malign tumors

    • basal cell carcinoma

    • squamous cell carcinoma

    • melanoma


Papilloma
papilloma

  • irregular, frond-like projection of the skin with a central vascular pedicle

  • Treatment: is usually esthetic and only sometimes symptomatic and consists in excision of the tumor

LECTURER DR. RUSU VALERIU


Cutaneous horn
cutaneous horn

  • firm projecting keratinized mass

LECTURER DR. RUSU VALERIU


Seborrehoeic keratosis
seborrehoeickeratosis

  • extremely common in the elderly and appears as a slow-growing, discrete, greasy, brown, round or oval lesion with friable verrucose surface


Keratoachantoma
keratoachantoma

  • Typically starts as an erithematous papule

  • grows and raises in a pinkish, indurate nodule

  • keratin-filled crater

  • undergoes spontaneous regression


Hemangioma
hemangioma

  • Treatment

    • local injection with corticoids

    • arterial ligature of the main sources

    • excision


Basal cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma

  • most common malignant tumor of the eyelid

  • from the lower eyelid or medial canthus

  • slow growing

  • locally invasive

  • very late metastasize


Squamous cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma

  • the grown rate and the metastasize are faster



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