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The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War U.S. History Ch. 17

  2. President Lincoln’s goals for peace were forgiving; he wanted to work toward peace and unity Goals of Civil War

  3. Lincoln was careful about slavery because he wanted the border states to remain with the Union • More interested in uniting the Union than in freeing slaves Goals of Civil War

  4. North strengths • had a much larger free population • Had greater manufacturing capability • Had a strong navy and a large merchant fleet North weaknesses • Would have to conquer huge area • Invading unfamiliar land • Lines of supply longer and open to attack Strengths and Weaknesses

  5. South strengths • Fighting a war for independence and defendingtheir homeland • Knew the southern countryside better South weaknesses • Fought mostly a defensive war • Fought for their property • Few factories to produce weapons and other supplies • Few railroads Strengths and Weaknesses

  6. Battle of Bull Run • 1st major battle of war • 7-21-1861 • Need for well-trained soldiers • Confederate victory • War would be long and bloody Battles of the Civil War

  7. Battle of Shiloh • 4-1862 • One of bloodiest battles • Grant won battle in West (TN) • Union victory Battles of the Civil War

  8. Battle of Antietam • 9-18-1862 • No clear winner Battles of the Civil War

  9. Battle of Fredericksburg • 12-1862 • One of Union’s worst defeats • Confederate victory Battles of the Civil War

  10. Battle of Chancellorsville • 5-1863 • General Jackson’s last battle • Confederate victory Battles of the Civil War

  11. Battle of Vicksburg • Grant lay siege to Vicksburg, MS • Siege: Military encirclement of an enemy position and blockading or bombarding it in order to force a surrender Battles of the Civil War

  12. Battle of Vicksburg • Capture of Vicksburg, MS split Confederacy in two • Mississippi River under Union control • Union victory: successful strategy for winning the war Battles of the Civil War

  13. Battle of Vicksburg • Determination of General Grant helped the Union achieve one of its goals in the Civil War Battles of the Civil War

  14. Grant’s plan for ending the war was to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy • Sherman’s March to the Sea • Total war: civilians were subject to the same hardships as enemy soldiers Battles of the Civil War

  15. Battle of Gettysburg • 6-30-1863 • One of most important battles of Civil War • Lee invaded North, into Pennsylvania • Pickett’s Charge: attack on Union position by 15,000 Confederates Battles of the Civil War

  16. Battle of Gettysburg • Union victory • Confederates never invaded North again • Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: to dedicate cemetery to 50,000 dead or wounded Battles of the Civil War

  17. “We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” –President Abraham Lincoln • Profound statement of American ideals Gettysburg Address

  18. General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia on 4-9-1865. Union eventually attained all of its goals End of the Civil War

  19. Lincoln believed he could save the Union by broadening the goals of the war. • 9-22-1862: added the abolition of slavery in the South to the Union’s war goals Emancipation Proclamation

  20. Both North and South experienced inflation • Inflation: rise in prices and decrease in the value of money Southern plantations began to grow food crops rather than just cotton Economic Problems

  21. Opposition to new draft law in 1863 led to riots in the North • Required able-bodied men to serve in the military if called Riots in Cities

  22. Certain rights were suspended to preserve public safety • Habeas Corpus: right to have a hearing before being jailed. • Martial Law: rule by army instead of by elected government Riots in Cities

  23. Small southern farmers resented the draft because men who owned more than 20 slaves were exempt from serving Southerners against Draft

  24. African Americans in the Union Army fought in major battles by 1863 • Slaves contributed to the Union war effort by refusing to work on the plantations African Americans in Civil War

  25. Women worked as nurses; performed so well that nursing became accepted occupation for women after the war • Confederate nurse Sally Tompkins set up a hospital in Virginia Women in the Civil War

  26. Slavery was ended everywhere in the United States • Turning point in history: Americans began to think of the country as one nation rather than as a confederation of states. Result of the Civil War