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A New Nation. Mrs. Ingram. Starter. Answer these on a scrap sheet of paper: 1) Who are your top 5 presidents (i.e. the best ones) 2) What are the qualities of a leader? . George Washington. 1 st President chosen by Electoral College Reluctant to accept the offer

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A new nation

A New Nation

Mrs. Ingram


Starter
Starter

Answer these on a scrap sheet of paper:

1) Who are your top 5 presidents (i.e. the best ones)

2) What are the qualities of a leader?


George washington
George Washington

1st President chosen by Electoral College

Reluctant to accept the offer

Inaugurated (sworn in) on April 30, 1787

Precedents:

Adds the words “so help me God” to the oath

Called “Mr. President”

Served two terms

Neutrality


Washington s cabinet another precedent
Washington’s Cabinet- another precedent!

Vice President: John Adams

Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of War: Henry Knox


Alexander hamilton s plan
Alexander Hamilton’s Plan

Needed to pay off debts and stabilize economy

Pay off debts and interest

Create national currency and bank

Impose whiskey tax and tariffs

Federal gov assumes state debts


Establishing the courts
Establishing the Courts

The Judiciary Act of 1789 established a federal system of courts.


Domestic problems
Domestic Problems

No money!!!!

Washington and Congress taxed whiskey and “luxury items”

Whiskey farmers hated it and began to rebel


Whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion

Congress lowered the taxes

The “Whiskey Boys” however began tar and feathering tax collectors

Washington sent 13,000 troops to put down the rebellion

It worked!!


Problems with native americans
Problems with Native Americans

  • Washington also faced domestic problems regarding Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.

    • The British were supplying NAs with weapons and they were attacking settlers.

  • At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Washington’s federal troops defeated the Native Americans, opening the region up for settlement.


The french revolution
The French Revolution

In 1789, the French people rebelled against the French king

Inspired by the American Revolution, the French people wanted “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity”

Americans were split on helping France

The French began executing the king, queen and many other French leaders

Americans were horrified

Jefferson wanted to help

Adams did not, fearing this kind of terror could spread to the US

Washington chose to remain neutral


Foreign treaties
Foreign Treaties

  • Washington was more likely to sign treaties with other countries rather than involve the U.S. in foreign affairs.

  • During his presidency, two treaties were signed– Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty.

    • Jay’s Treaty Great Britain would give up forts on U.S. soil; the U.S. would pay back pre-war debts owed.

    • Pinckney’s Treaty Spain would be granted a northern border to Florida; the U.S. would have access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans.


Washington s farewell address
Washington’s Farewell Address

Warned against two things:

A nation split between political parties (“political factions”)

Cautioned the U.S. to remain neutral in issues of foreign policy (“foreign entanglements”)


Ranking washington
Ranking Washington

“First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen”

Numerous memorials

Consistently ranked among top Presidents (with Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt)



Xyz affair
XYZ Affair

  • When the French heard about the Jay Treaty, they felt betrayed. In order to appease tensions between France and the U.S., Adams sent officials to France to negotiate.

    • The French officials (known as X, Y, and Z) attempted to humiliate the U.S. and demanded $250,000 in bribes. It became known as the XYZ Affair.

    • The public was divided, and the D-Rs were speaking out against the government for their handling of the incident.

  • In 1798, Adams reluctantly signed the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts threatened arrest to immigrants and citizens who spoke publicly or wrote negatively about the Adams administration.

    • Immigrants generally supported the Democratic-Republicans…


Va and ky resolutions
VA and KY resolutions

  • The two D-R leaders, Jefferson and Madison, wrote resolutions on behalf of their home states (VA and KY) that declared the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional. (Virginia and Kentucky resolutions)

  • They asserted that states had the right to nullify, or void, federal law. Seemingly, this gave the states more power to enact/disallow laws than the federal government.

    • First major demonstration of states’ rights.


Election of 1800
Election of 1800

  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (both D-Rs) tied in electoral votes. The vote went to the House of Representatives.

    • After many re-votes, Jefferson was able to claim victory. Hamilton had lobbied for Jefferson because he considered him the more ‘honorable’ man over Aaron Burr.

  • In 1804, the 12th amendment was passed which stated that voting for president and vice-president would be separate.

    • Aaron Burr would kill Alexander Hamilton in a duel that same year.


Recap today s topics
Recap Today’s Topics

  • Which of these individuals was NOT a member of Washington’s Cabinet?

    • Thomas Jefferson

    • Henry Knox

    • James Madison

    • Alexander Hamilton

  • How did Washington respond to domestic problems?

    • He mediated an end to the disputes.

    • He used his position as president to commit federal troops to end the disputes.

    • He allowed the state governments to handle the problems.

    • He did nothing.

  • What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 establish?

    a) A state court system b) State laws c) Penalties for criminals d) Federal court system


Recap today s topics1
Recap Today’s Topics!

  • How did the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions demonstrate the belief in states’ rights?

    • It asserted the states’ power to nullify federal laws.

    • It allowed states to enact their own penalties for violating state laws.

    • States could no longer have their own constitutions.

    • States were able to rule on federal court cases.

  • How did the XYZ Affair impact public opinion?

    • Distrust in the British grew.

    • Distrust in the French grew.

    • The U.S. began to decrease economic support for the British.

    • The U.S. began to increase economic support for the French.

      Ticket-out-the-door question: Should Washington be remembered more for his foreign or domestic policy successes? Why?