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Outline • GMD (Chinese Nationalist Party)-CCP (Chinese Communist Party) Civil War (1946-1949) • Recovery and Socialism (1949-1956) • Rethinking the Soviet Model (1956-1957) • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) • Recovery & Growing Elite Division (1962-1965) • Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945) The Nationalist Party and the Communist Party were allied during the war with Japan (Nihon).
China 1945-1949 Civil war and CCP victory
Civil War (1946 – 1949) • Allies during the war against Japan. • GMD: Guomindang (Nationalist Party) • Chiang Kai-shek (President) • CCP: Chinese Communist Party • Mao Zedong
Chinese Civil War • During the war China was divided between two political parties: • GMD (Chinese Nationalist Party) China in the towns and cities on the coast and • CCP (Chinese Communist Party) China in the rural ‘liberation areas.’
Chiang Kai-shek was a military dictator-Generalissimo. He used a political police force –Blueshirts- to destroy the opposition. Chiang wanted to modernize and unify China. The GMD gained the most support among the “middle class” in towns and cities. Kai-shek tried to gain support from peasants by sending students into the countryside to help with the harvest. He failed to gain support because of high taxes and famine. He failed to deal with issues like medical care and poverty. GMD China - 1945
In ‘Liberation areas’ controlled by the CCP many changes were made to land ownership and farming. Land was taken from big landlords and given to peasants. Rents and taxes were reduced. The Red Army helped to improve farming methods – introduced new tools. The CCP tried to make society more modern and equal.Banned many old practices (like foot-binding) and tried to encourage everyone to live equally. They gained a lot of support from peasants. The Red Army was respected for its disciplined behaviour and hard work. CCP China - 1945
CCP v. GMD • Both the GMD and the CCP wanted control of China after World War II. • Both sides had armies willing to fight and die for their side. • The CCP held power in much of Central and Northern China, but the GMD had more power in the South.
As soon as the war with Japan was over the two sides began to fight for control. In the beginning, the CCP looked stronger, however the GMD then received help from the USA (fighting against communism). The USA wanted the GMD and the CCP to share power and avoid civil war. A truce was established, but it quickly broke down and civil war began in 1946. A chance at Peace?
The GMD had many advantages over the CCP – well-trained soldiers, new equipment, money and control of many cities. Kai-shek also had the backing of most foreign countries. The first offensive of the civil war was launched by the GMD in north China. Over the next year the GMD won many battles against the CCP and had captured the CCP capital Yanan. The fighting begins….
Progress was promising for the GMD by mid 1947, however the CCP was beginning to fight back more effectively. By the end of 1947 the CCP had taken much of central and northern China by using Guerilla tactics. Thousands of peasants joined the People’s Liberation Army. Massive inflation caused many people in GMD towns/cities to switch their support to the communists. The Blueshirts tried and failed to keep order – but the GMD was losing control rapidly. fighting continues...
The Communists take control! • The PLA continued to grow throughout 1947/48 and became powerful enough to face the GMD army head-on. • The two sides fought a massive battle at Huai River (Battle of Huai Hai) and the GMD suffered massive casualties. • The CCP were able to take control of Beijing and other important cities.
The war was over! The Communists had beaten the GMD!Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan in 1949 and set up a GMD-led Republic of ChinaThe creation of the People’s Republic of China was announced by the CCP on the 1 October 1949.
People’s Republic of China • 1949-10-01, PRC, Beijing • Chairman: Mao Zedong • 5-Star Red Flag • Republic of China government retreated to Taiwan
Mao Zedong • A revolution to remove “3 big mountains” • imperialism • feudalism • bureaucrat-capitalism • A “United Front” of … • workers • peasants • petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie
Economic Reconstruction 1950s • Soviet Union model and assistance • land reform (eliminate landlord class) • heavy industry (state-owned enterprises) • First National People’s Congress (1954) • People’s Republic of China Constitution • Zhou Enlai • Premier • Foreign Minister
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) • Mao broke with the Soviet model and announced a new economic program aimed at rapidly raising industrial and agricultural production. • Giant cooperatives (communes) were formed, and "backyard factories" dotted the Chinese landscape.
Great Leap Forward Failed • unrealistic output targets • industry • agricultural and human disaster
Growing Division (1962-1965) • Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping • In the early 1960s, State President Liu Shaoqi and his protege, Party General Secretary Deng Xiaoping, took over direction of the party and adopted pragmatic economic policies at odds with Mao's revolutionary vision. • Charismatic leadership vs. Bureaucracy
Timeframe The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution began on May 16, 1966. Led by Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), it lasted until 1976, although Mao himself declared that it was over in 1969.
Location Mao Tse-tung declared China the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949. China is located in East Asia and borders the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, Mongolia, India, and many other nations. The Chinese consider Taiwan to be part of China and call it the Republic of China.
A New Culture The Cultural Revolution, was just that, a change in the Chinese culture. However, this revolution was government sponsored as Mao sought to eliminate bourgeoisie intellectuals from China and create a powerful, single-class, proletariat country.
The Youth Movement Instead of killing the intellectuals in China, who amounted to less than 10% of the population, Mao decided to re-educate intellectuals in the ways of the proletariat. To do so, he made many books and learning sources illegal, and relocated members of the bourgeoisie class to farming communities where they were forced to do manual labor.
Literature During the Cultural Revolution, almost all forms of creative literature were made illegal. All western books were banned and destroyed, and no one was able to publish any literature unless it supported the Communist National Party. Mao Tse-tung published many works himself, and almost everyone in China was forced to carry around a book of his quotations known as the “Little Red Book.”
Art At one point in China calligraphy had been considered the greatest form of art above painting and dancing. The Chinese language consists of 6000-7000 characters, each with an intricate design. During the Cultural Revolution, all forms of art, calligraphy, painting, dancing, and singing, were reduced to those that supported the Communist National Party. “Let the new Socialist Performing Arts conquer every stage.”
Etiquette The Three Main Rules of Discipline are as follows: • Obey orders in all your actions. • Do not take a single needle piece of thread from the masses. • Turn in everything captured.
Religion Mao lashed out at organized religion in China. He blamed religion for China’s problems and under his rule many different types of temples and churches were burned to the ground or converted into government buildings. However, some people began to worship Mao, and Mao worship evolved into a cult activity. The Temple of Heaven
People Over 90% of all of the people in China belonged to the proletariat class. These were countryside farmers who lived in small farming communities. People would farm for both sustenance and local sales, and sometimes meat was hard to come by in certain locations.
Women Before Mao, women had been treated as subservient in China. However, Mao insisted on treating women as equals saying “Women hold up half the sky.” “Proletarian revolutionary rebels unite!”
Mao and the Cultural Revolution: once more shaping and re-shaping China.
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution • commitment to revolution and “class struggle” • power struggle to succeed Mao • Phase I: the rise and fall of the “Red Guards”-radical youth organizations • Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao • Phase III: the rise and fall of the “Gang of Four”
Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69) • Purge of party cadres • Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping • Purge of intellectuals
Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71) • Party Vice Chairman and Defense Minister Lin Biao reportedly tried to stage a coup against Mao. • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed • to assassinate Mao • to flee to the Soviet Union • Supposedly died in a plane crash in Mongolia
Phase III: the “Gang of Four” • Deng Xiaoping emerged in 1973 and was confirmed in 1975 in the concurrent posts of Party Vice Chairman, Politburo Standing Committee member, PLA Chief of Staff, and Vice Premier • A power struggle ensued between • the radical “Gang of Four,” led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife • the “moderates,” led by Premier Zhou Enlai • The fate of Deng Xiaoping…
Phase III: Zhou Enlai • In January 1976, Premier Zhou Enlai died of cancer. • On April 5, Beijing citizens staged a spontaneous demonstration in Tiananmen Square in Zhou's memory, with strong political overtones of support for Deng. • The authorities forcibly suppressed the demonstration. Deng was blamed for the disorder and stripped of all official positions.
Mao and Zhou Died in 1976 • Turning point in China’s postwar era • “Gang of Four” were arrested • End of the Cultural Revolution
Reforms and Opening up • The new leadership emphasized economic development and renounced mass political movements. • At the December 1978 Third Plenum (of the 11th Party Congress Central Committee), the leadership adopted economic reform policies aimed at • expanding rural income and incentives, • encouraging experiments in enterprise autonomy, • reducing central planning, and • attracting foreign direct investment into China. • The plenum also decided to accelerate the pace of legal reform, culminating in the passage of several new legal codes by the National People's Congress in June 1979.
Diplomatic Breakthrough • 1971, Peoples Republic of China became the representative of China in the UN (replaced Republic Of China-Tawain)
Diplomatic Breakthrough 1972 President Nixon visited Beijing
Ji-li’s first book, Red Scarf Girl fulfilled a long-cherished wish to tell her story about what happened to her, her family, her neighborhood, and her school during the 1960’s Cultural Revolution in China. Ji-li was a science teacher in Shanghai, China, before she came to the United States in 1984. She studied Travel Industry Management at the University of Hawaii and worked as a corporate operations analyst and budgeting director. In 1992, she co-founded the East West Exchange, a company that promotes and facilitates cultural and business exchanges between China and western countries. Ji-li Jiang
A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution • Ji-li Jiang was twelve years old in 1966—the year the Cultural Revolution began in China. • Red Scarf Girl is her heart-wrenching account of the Revolution—an unforgettable portrait of a young girl torn between her love for both country and family. • According to Jiang, the book is an effort to “Do something for the little girl I had been, and for all the children who lost their childhoods as I did” (page 266). • Told with simplicity and grace, this powerful memoir recalls one of the most terrifying times in Chinese history.
Setting/history • The story takes place in Shanghai, China, during the onset of Chairman Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution.
Setting/history • By 1949 Mao established a Communist state by defeating the former ruling party, the Nationalists. In 1966, when Ji-li's story begins, Mao has just imposed the Cultural Revolution to cut people's ties to pre-Communist China.