Science EOG

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# Science EOG - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Science EOG. Sample Questions &amp; Test Taking Strategies. Warm-up:. Update your Table of Contents for today We will be completing practice EOG questions each day for warm-up, so please start on page 18 and keep adding to it each day…so, number 1-15 for today’s questions!. Tutoring.

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### Science EOG

Sample Questions & Test Taking Strategies

Warm-up:
• We will be completing practice EOG questions each day for warm-up, so please start on page 18 and keep adding to it each day…so, number 1-15 for today’s questions!
Tutoring
• Monday after school until 5:00 to review the Periodic Table and Chemistry first and then anything else that you want to go over…PLEASE COME WITH SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
Break It Down!
• Students need to be able to read carefully and analyze exactly what the question is asking them
• Students need to know content vocabulary
• Students need to be able to eliminate answer choices

Basic Question Break Down

1-5 are random sample questions

Question 1

A beaker with 100 mL of water is placed on a hot plate and heated. The water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. At what temperature would 90 mL of water boil?

• 10 degrees Celsius
• 90 degrees Celsius
• 100 degrees Celsius
• 110 degrees Celsius
Question 2

Where is the majority of Earth’s fresh water located?

• Clouds
• Ocean
• Polar ice caps
• Rivers
Question 3

A layer of marine fossils is discovered in a desert environment. Which hypothesis best explains the discovery?

• The area was once covered by water
• Volcanic activity once occurred in the area
• A catastrophic event once occurred in the area
• Erosion turned most of the limestone in the area into sand
Question 4

The chart shows the worldwide number of measles cases over the last 20 years. What is most likely the cause of decline in cases of measles?

• Antibiotics
• Chemotherapy
• Quarantines
• Vaccines
Question 5

A chemical reaction produces two new substances, and each product has a mass of 25 grams. What was the total mass of the reactants?

A. 25 grams

B. 50 grams

C. 75 grams

D. 100 grams

Earth’s History Review

Questions 6-15 focus on Earth’s History

Earth’s History Review

6) Whichbest explains how geologic time scales can help scientists study the evolution of life on Earth?

• They describe the existence of rocks before there was life on Earth
• They show that geological features have evolved at the same rate as organisms
• They compare the life histories of species that have used rocks as habitats
• They correlate the existence of life on Earth with geological events
Earth’s History Review

7) Which can most likely be concluded about the top layer of rock seen in an undisturbed cliff wall?

• The top layer is older than layers located farther down the cliff
• The top layer is younger than layers located farther down the cliff
• The top layer contains more fossils than layers located farther down the cliff
• The top layer contains fewer fossils than layers located farther down the cliff
Earth’s History Review

8) A scientist has a hypothesis that a large volcanic eruption caused a change in global temperature. Which information gained from ice cores is most useful in supporting this hypothesis?

• Levels of dissolved oxygen
• Identities of trace metals
• Amounts of atmospheric dust
Earth’s History Review

9) Which statement supports the theory of evolution?

• All living things came from previous cells
• All plants and animals have DNA
• Matter cannot be created or destroyed
• Fossils provide evidence that organisms share a common ancestor
Earth’s History Review

10) If an index fossil is found in two rock beds that are separated by an ocean, what do you know about the relationship between the two rock beds?

• The rock beds used to be in the same areas
• The rock beds are about the same age
• The rock beds are made from the same type of rock
• The rock beds are unrelated
Earth’s History Review

11) What best explains why scientists have found fossils of the same species of land-dwelling animal in both Africa and South America?

• The animals swam from one continent to the other
• The two continents were once connected by a land bridge
• The animals evolved identically on the two continents at the same time
• The two continents were once joined as part of a larger continent
Earth’s History Review

12) Fossils of warm-weather plants were found on an island in the Arctic Ocean. What can be concluded from this discovery?

• Spores of the plant drifted by air currents to the island
• Ocean currents carried the plants to the island
• The island drifted from a tropical region to its present location in the Arctic
• Seeds of plants have been carried to the island by migratory birds
Earth’s History Review

13) The theory of global warming is based on an increase of what atmospheric gas?

• Carbon dioxide
• Helium
• Hydrogen
• Oxygen
Earth’s History Review

14) Which theory best describes how an asteroid striking Earth may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?

• Heat from the asteroid caused massive fires that reduced the food supply
• Dense clouds formed following the collision causing a global drop in temperature
• Land masses were altered by the collision reducing the carrying capacity of the land
• Glaciers melted rapidly from the heat produced by the asteroid flooding the dinosaur’s habitats
Earth’s History Review

15) The Mid-Atlantic Ridge exists between the African and South American geologic plates. Which process most often occurs at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

• Destruction of crust
• Scraping of two geologic plates at a fault line
• Subduction of geologic plates
• Spreading of the sea floor
Warm-up:
• We will continue with Chemistry review, so please make sure you have a copy of the Periodic Table to follow along!
Remember!
• Elements are substances that are made of only one type of atom! THEY ARE PURE SUBSTANCES…the ingredients for all other substances on Earth!
• Period – Row across the periodic table

(tells you how many electron shells there are, basically the atoms in each row are the same size)

• Group – Column going down the periodic table

(The elements in each group share similar characteristics or properties)

• Group – Column going down the periodic table

(The group # can also tell you how many valence electrons there are…but there is a trick)

“Kingdoms” of the Periodic Table
• Metal – Left side of the periodic table
• Broken in to two regions:
• Reactive metals
• Group 1 – Alkali
• Group 2 – Alkaline
• Nonreactive metals
• Groups 3-12 are the

Transition metals

“Kingdoms” of the Periodic Table
• Nonmetals – right side of the periodic table
• Two groups
• Group 17 - Halogens
• Very reactive gases
• Group 18 -Noble Gases
• Nonreactive gases

Noble Gases

Halogens

• Hydrogen the Weirdo
• Different from any of the other elements
• Nonmetal
• Has 0 neutrons
Kingdoms of the Periodic Table
• Metalloids- Found on the zig-zag steps
• Have properties of metals and nonmetals
Remember!
• We learned 2 ways to represent an individual element:

Sodium

Atomic #: __________

Atomic Mass: _______

# of Protons: _______

# of Neutrons: ______

# of Electrons:______

Name:_________

Symbol:________

Lets try it the other way!

Atomic # = __________

Atomic Mass = ________

# of Protons = _________

# of Neutrons = ________

# of Electrons = ________

Element Name: ________

Element Symbol: ______

One More Time…

Atomic # = __________

Atomic Mass = ________

# of Protons = _________

# of Neutrons = ________

# of Electrons = ________

Element Name: ________

Element Symbol: ______

Chemical Reactions
• Reactants? Product?
• Law of Conservation of Matter – what goes in must come out!
• Reactants = Products

Reactants

Products

But What If It Doesn’t?
• STOP, THINK, DISCUSS…
• If you weigh your elements before a chemical reaction, and the compounds afterwards and they do not have the same mass before and after what likely happened during the chemical reaction?
Let’s Practice

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O

Physical Change
• A physical change takes place without the element’s chemical structure changing.
• EXAMPLES:
• Dissolving
• Phase change (solid, liquid, gas)
• Changing shape
Chemical Change
• Production of a new substance
• Cannot be reversed
Element, Compound or Mixture?
• How can you tell if something is an element, a compound or a mixture?
• What types of mixtures are there?
Element
• Must be on the Periodic Table OF ELEMENTS to be and element!
Compound:
• Made when two or more elements combine during a chemical reaction
• Examples:
• Water
• Salt
• Sugar
• Chemical Change
Mixture
• Combines 2 or more substances without producing a chemical reaction
• NOT the same throughout - heterogeneous
• Can be separated easily
• Examples:
• Soil
• Physical Change
Solution:
• A type of MIXTURE that IS the same throughout

- homogenous

• Solute- substance being dissolved
• Solvent- substance doing the dissolving
• Examples:
• Salt water
• Physical Change

Salt = Solute

Water= Solvent

Salt Water= Solution

Warm-up:
• We will continue with the Hydrosphere! I would get your book out so you can put the info in your book as we go!
Constructed Response
• The constructed response is really an example for the 6th or 7th grade science summative, but since renewable and non-renewable resources are on your social studies vocab list & were also science topics we are going to practice one more time!
Evaporation
• When water changes from a liquid to a gas (water vapor)

What makes the

water evaporate?

Condensation
• When water changes from a gas (water vapor) to a liquid

Give me an

example of

condensation…

Precipitation
• When water falls from clouds

What are forms

of precipitation?

Run-off/Accumulation
• When water moves from one location to another (run-off)
• and gathers there (accumulation)

What else can the

water do?

Transpiration
• Water vapor coming from trees and plants
Percolation
• Water soaking down into the ground through the soil
Properties of Water

How do they relate to each other?

Polarity explains a lot!

Oxygen = negative

Hydrogen = positive

Water is attracted to itself and other things like a magnet!!

Cohesion
• Because water is polar, it sticks to itself!!
• Again, because water is polar it sticks to OTHER things too!!
• Water is less dense as a solid than a liquid…that’s why ice cubes float!
Buoyancy

Water’s ability to push back on objects allow them to float! (Has to do with surface area)

Specific Heat
• Water has a really high specific heat
• It takes a long time for water to heat up or cool down
Universal Solvent
• Water can dissolve more substances than anything else!
Water Quality Indicators

How do they affect each other?

Temperature
• Definition: How hot or cold the water is due to kinetic energy
• Healthy:The water is the right temperature to support the things that live in it.
• Unhealthy:The temperature is too high (970F) or too low (320F) and will hurt or kill things that live in it.
Turbidity

Definition: A measure of how cloudy water is due to “stuff” in it.

Healthy: Clear, clean water = 1 NTU

Unhealthy: Sediment or pollution that makes the water cloudy = 5 NTU

pH
• Definition: The acid content of

the water

• Healthy: Has to be the correct

level for the type of water.

Most Freshwater: 6.0 8.0

• Unhealthy: Is not the right level for

the type of water or to support life.

Dissolved Oxygen

Definition: oxygen gas dissolved in the water

Healthy: Right amount dissolved oxygen = lots of life 4-5 ppm is optimal

Unhealthy:Low dissolved oxygen = little or no life

Nutrients
• Definition: Something that is usually good, but can become toxic when there is too much
• Healthy: The right amount of nitrates, phosphates,
• sunlight = lots of life
• Unhealthy: Too many or not enough nutrients = little or no life
• nitrates = above 1 ppm
• phosphates = above .003 ppm

EUTROPHICATION FLOW CHARTExcess Nutrients  Algae Bloom (pond scum)  darkness belowsurface  photosynthesis stops decomposers & other organismsuse up oxygen DEATH

Bio-indicators

Definition: Macro-invertebrates that live in the water and are sensitive to pollution

Healthy: A lot of bio-indicators = healthy water

Unhealthy: Little or no bio-indicators = unhealthy water

“Game Changers”

MERCURY

Natural element that has increased to toxic levels due to industry

Usually affects people through eating fish from mercury contaminated water

Causes kidney damage & brain/neurological disorders

“Game changers”

COLIFORM BACTERIA

commonly found in water, soil and vegetation

usually harmless but can indicate the presence of other harmful forms of coliform bacteria

(fecal matter & E. Coli)

Step 1. Coagulation
• Coagulation:The process at which chemicals are added so that dirt and other particles stick together into “floc”(Flocculation) so they can easily be removed…the “stick & scoop” step
Step 2. Sedimentation
• Sedimentation:The heavy particles settle to the bottom and the clear water moves on
Step 3. Filtration
• Filtration: The water passes through filters made of different materials
Step 4. Disinfection
• Disinfection:A small amount of chemicals are added to kill bacteria(usually chlorine)
Step 5. Storage
• Storage:Water is stored in a closed tank to be used by the community
Ocean Zones

What types of life forms live in each zone?

Intertidal zone

Neritic zone

Oceanic zone

Ocean Organisms
• Benthos = bottom dwellers; all organisms that live on the ocean floor
• Nekton = free swimmers; all organisms that can swim freely through the ocean
For the rest of class…
• Finish the practice questions
• Work on your book for the rest of class
• If you finish your book check out the practice sites on the wiki page!!!
Warm-up:
• We will continue with Biology/Ecology – Life Sciences! I would get your book out so you can put the info in your book as we go!
Warm-Up
• Read the article about shark embryos and answer the questions…you can answer the questions on the back of the paper if you need more space!
4 Characteristics of Living Things
• Organized Structure (cells & their organelles - DNA/genetic code)
• Grow and Develop (change over time = evolution; repair cells; make new cells)
• Reproduction (one of many metabolic or cellular processes)
Cells, Cells, they’re made of organelles…
• Nucleus – controls the cell; stores DNA
• Cell Membrane – allows things to enter & leave the cell
• Vacuole – stores materials the cell needs
• Lysosome – breaks materials down
• Mitochondria – makes energy
• Cytoplasm – holds organelles in place
• Endoplasmic Reticulum – packages materials needed to make protein
• Ribosomes– makes proteins
• Golgi Bodies – sends proteins where they are needed in the body
Cellular Processes: STERNGRR
• Synthesis – building necessary nutrients (photosynthesis would fit here)
• Transport – movement within or in and out of the cell
• Excretion – breaking down or getting rid of wastes
• Regulation – maintaining balance within the body
• Nutrition – how an organism obtains food
• Growth – making new cells or repairing
• Respiration – making usable energy (cellular respiration would fit here)
• Reproduction – producing offspring
Photosynthesis
• Plant cells use energy from the sun, carbon dioxide and water to make food
Cellular Respiration
• Animal Cells then use the oxygen and sugars to “breathe” and make energy (ATP)
Pathogens Cause Disease
• We will focused on 4 Types of Pathogens:
• Fungi
• Bacteria
• Viruses
• Parasites
Fungi
• Non-Photosynthetic organisms
• Most fungi are multicellularheterotrophs
• Fungi grow in almost every habitat imaginable, as long as there is some type of organic matter present and the environment is not too extreme
Bacteria
• Living organisms
• Unicellular, prokaryotic
• Larger than viruses, but usually more treatable
• Antibiotics used to treat
Virus
• NOT LIVING – Needs a host to survive and reproduce
• Since it is not alive, it has NO CELLS
• Very small
• Vaccines used to treat
Parasites
• Living organisms that need a host to survive – highly adapted to their host
• Unicellular or multicellular
• Come in many shapes and sizes
Ecology…
• In a food chain or food web, which direction do the arrows go?
Geological & Biological Evolution

Biological evolution is driven by the changes in Earth…living things evolve in response to changes in their environment. This process is known as Natural Selection or “Survival of the Fittest.”

There are 4 principles of Natural Selection:

• Overproduction
• Variation
• Selection
Evidence of Evolution

When Charles Darwin, “The Father of Evolution,” first proposed the idea that ALL species descend from aCOMMON ANCESTORhe needed evidence to support his claim. The major pieces of evidence can be broken into…

• Fossils
• Embryology
• Comparative Anatomy (homologous, analogous, vestigial)
• Molecular Biology (DNA, genetics)
Summarizing Evolution:
• Genes mutate causing variations
• Those with the best variations are selected to survive & reproduce becoming adaptations
• This causes the population of that species to evolve or change over time becoming better suited to survive in its specific habitat

IS THIS IMAGE ACCURATE?

For the rest of class…
• Finish the practice questions
• Work on your book for the rest of class
• If you finish your book check out the practice sites on the wiki page!!!