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What are microbes?. helminths. yeast. viruses. cyanobacteria. protozoa. bacteria. algae. mold. Taxonomy. http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/. www.amazon.com. Taxonomy. Plantae. Animalia. Fungi. Protista. Monera.

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what are microbes
What are microbes?

helminths

yeast

viruses

cyanobacteria

protozoa

bacteria

algae

mold

taxonomy
Taxonomy

http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/

five kingdom system

Plantae

Animalia

Fungi

Protista

Monera

Five kingdom system
three domain system

Encephalitozoan

EUBACTERIA

EUKARYA

Hexamita

Valrimorpha

Cytophaga

Giardia

Chlorobium

Epulopiscium

Bacillus

Trichomonas

Agrobacterium

Synechococcus

Physarum

E. coli

Thermus

Trypanosoma

Thermomicrobium

Riftia

Chromatium

Thermotoga

Euglena

Aquifex

ARCHAEA

Naegleria

Entamoeba

Haloferax

Dictylostelium

Methanobacterium

Methanospirillum

Porphyra

Methanococcus

Methanosarcina

Organisms visible to human eye

Thermococcus

Paramecium

Methanopyros

Plants

Sulfolobus

Fungi

Animals

Thermoproteus

Thermofilum

pSL50

pSL4

pSL22

pSL12

pJP78

pJP27

Marine group 1

Three Domain System

Black, J.G. (2002) Fig. 9.13

taxonomical ranks
Taxonomical “ranks”

after Alcamo Fig. 3.4

bacterial nomenclature

OR, underline if handwritten:

Enterococcus faecalis

  • strains? (subspecies)
Bacterial nomenclature
  • Genus + species
  • e.g.:
    • Escherichia (genus) coli (species)
    • Bacillus subtilis
    • Enterococcus faecalis
where do bacteria come from
Where do bacteria come from?

Palaeolyngbya

chroococcalean form

www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ bacteria/cyanofr.html

where do bacteria live
Where do bacteria live?
  • EVERYWHERE! (almost)
  • humans host 1014 bacterial cells in 1013 human cells!
  • NOT found inside tissues (of organisms)
what do microbes do

www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/ faq.html

What do microbes do?
  • Eat, grow, and divide!!
  • How to accomplish?
    • modify metabolism
    • make toxins
    • structuralmodifications
why do we care
Why do we care?
  • Disease
  • Agriculture
  • Food and beverages
  • Chemicals
  • Basic research
  • Biotechnology
how did microbiology become a science

micrograph

microscope

How did microbiology become a science?
  • Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (late 1600’s)
spontaneous generation controversy
Spontaneous generation controversy

www.darwin.museum.ru/site_bac/ etap/etap2_A.htm

disease transmission
Disease transmission?

miasma

www.ghosthunting.org.uk/ cemetary3.htm

fracastoro
Fracastoro

“seeds” of contagion

infection

delpiano.com/millennium/html/ body_fracastoro.html

symptoms

courses

semmelweis
Semmelweis

www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/ j/e/jel5/micro/art.htm

john snow
John Snow

www.soi.city.ac.uk/ ~dk708/pg1_1.htm

joseph lister

pw1.netcom.com/~aguldo/ agga/bt/txt/bt1899.htm

Lister

www.umanitoba.ca/.../medicine/ history/lister/anessurg.html

Joseph Lister
koch establishes causative link between b anthracis anthrax

Robert Koch

http://www.vdem.state.va.us/prepare/terrorismtoolkit/anthraxoverview.htm

www.robert-koch-stiftung.de/ ziele.html

Koch establishes causative link between B. anthracis & anthrax
slide22

Suspected microbe must be present in EVERY case of the disease

Diseased subjects

Microbe not typically found in healthy subjects

Koch’s Postulates

Must isolate & grow pure culture of microbe

Same microbe must be isolated from diseased experimental host

Cultured microbe must cause disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible host

exceptions to koch s postulates
Exceptions to Koch’s postulates
  • Organism can’t be cultured
    • e.g. Mycobacterium leprae
  • Combination of pathogens
  • Ethical considerations
golden age of microbiology late 1800s

DISEASE

Anthrax

Gonorrhea

Typhoid fever

Malaria

Tuberculosis

Cholera

Diphtheria

Tetanus

Diarrhea

Pneumonia

Meningitis

Gas gangrene

CAUSATIVE AGENT

Bacillus anthracis

Neisseria gonorrhea

Salmonella typhi

Plasmodium spp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Vibrio cholera

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Clostridium tetani

Escherichia coli

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitidis

Clostridium perfringens

YEAR

1867

1879

1884

1880

1882

1883

1883-84

1885-89

1885

1886

1887

1892

“Golden Age” of Microbiology: Late 1800s
what s included in microbiology
What’s included in “microbiology”?

Microbiology

Basic research microbiology

Applied microbiology

In relation to disease

After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2

By kind of organism

By process

Bacteriology

Phycology

Mycology

Protozoology

Parasitology

Virology

Microbial metabolism

Microbial genetics

Microbial ecology

Immunology

Epidemiology

Etiology

Microbialtaxonomy

what s included in microbiology26
What’s included in “microbiology”?

Microbiology

Basic research microbiology

Applied microbiology

After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2

Disease-related

Environmental

Industrial

Infection control

Chemotherapy

Environmental microbiology

Food/Beverage technology

Pharmaceutical microbiology

Genetic engineering