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Vegetarianism. A Brief Overview. Objectives. Define vegetarianism and associated terms Describe benefits of vegetarian diet Discuss nutrients of concern in vegetarian diets . Vegetarian.

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vegetarianism

Vegetarianism

A Brief Overview

objectives
Objectives
  • Define vegetarianism and associated terms
  • Describe benefits of vegetarian diet
  • Discuss nutrients of concern in vegetarian diets
vegetarian
Vegetarian
  • A general term used to describe people who exclude meat, poultry, fish, or other animal-derived foods from their diets.
  • Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices.
history of vegetarian
History of Vegetarian

“Vegetarian” was coined in 1847 by Vegetarian Society of United Kingdom.

The word “vegetarian” was derived from the Latin word “vegetari” which means enliven.

Vegetarianism dates to ancient history where philosophers and religious gurus asked followers to avoid a flesh diet to acknowledge the sacredness of life.

why vegetarianism
Why Vegetarianism?
  • Ecology – animal proteins require more land, energy, and water
    • Enough grain/soybean to feed 1.3 billion
    • 2500 gal of water/# vs. 25 gal/# of wheat
  • Economics – plant foods less expensive
  • Ethics – killing/confinement of animals
  • Religious Beliefs

p. 378

types of vegetarians
Types of Vegetarians
  • Loacto-ovo: vegetarians who consume eggs, milk, and milk products
  • Pesco: vegetarians who eat fish
  • Vegans: vegetarians who rely exclusively on plant foods

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other definitions
Other Definitions
  • Omnivores: people who have no formal restriction on the eating of any foods
  • Macrobiotic diet: extremely restrictive diet limited to a few grains (brown rice, miso soup) and vegetables based on metaphysical beliefs
more definitions
More Definitions
  • Meat replacements: products made to look and taste like meat, fish, poultry
  • Textured vegetable protein: processed soybeans used to make soy burgers, etc
  • Tempeh: a fermented soybean food
  • Tofu: a curd made from soybean; used in Asian & vegetarian dishes
benefits of vegetarianism
Obesity

Hypertension

Heart Disease

Cancer

Diabetes

Osteoporosis

Diverticular Disease

Gallstones

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Benefits of Vegetarianism

Sabate, Forum of Nutrition, 56:218; 2003

Winston, Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 25:613; 2010

benefits of vegetarianism1
Benefits of Vegetarianism
  • Obesity
    • Vegetarians maintain lower, healthier body weight than non-vegetarians
    • Lower weight correlates with high intakes of fiber and low intakes of fat

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81:1267;2005

  • Hypertension
    • Vegetarians have lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension
    • Other factors impact hypertension

Nutrition Reviews, 63:1;2005

benefits of vegetarianism2
Benefits of Vegetarianism
  • Heart Disease
    • Incidence of heart disease much lower
    • Higher intakes of fiber, antioxidants, vitamins, phytochemicals, and fats

Public Health Nutrition, 87:871;2004

  • Cancer
    • Significantly lower rates of cancer
    • Ratio of vegetables to meat may be most relevant dietary factor in prevention

Forum of Nutrition, 59:130;2006

other possible benefits
Other Possible Benefits
  • Vegetarianism may help in the prevention of the following:
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Diverticular Disease
  • Gallstones
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

Leitzmann, Forum of Nutrition, 57:147; 2005

nutrition concerns
Nutrition Concerns
  • Vitamin B12
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Protein
nutrition concerns1
Nutrition Concerns
  • Vitamin B12
    • Found only in animal-derived foods
    • Need fortified sources (soy milk, cereal)
    • Small amount in tempeh but inactive form
    • Small amount in seaweeds (nori, chlorella) but possible iodine toxicity
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Found in fatty fish
    • Need flaxseed, walnuts
nutrition concerns2
Nutrition Concerns
  • Vitamin D
    • Need fortified foods if inadequate exposure to sunlight
    • Important for infants, children, elderly
  • Calcium
    • Lacto-ovo vegetarians similar to omnivores
    • Vegans need fortified juices, soy milk, and breakfast cereals
    • Important for children
nutrition concerns3
Nutrition Concerns
  • Iron
    • RDA for iron higher for vegetarians because plant iron (non-heme iron) is not as well absorbed
    • Body adjusts to absorb more plant iron
    • No more iron deficiency than omnivores?
  • Zinc
    • Plant zinc not well absorbed
    • Soy interferes with absorption
nutrition concerns4
Nutrition Concerns
  • Protein
    • Vegetarian diets are low in high quality proteins (those containing all of the essential amino acids)
    • Use fortified meat replacements and textured vegetable proteins
    • Use complementary proteins
complementary proteins
Complementary Proteins
  • Definition: The combination of plant protein foods which when eaten together provide all the essential amino acids.
vegetarian diet planning
Vegetarian Diet Planning
  • The more restricted the vegetarian diet is the greater the challenge is to achieve a nutritionally adequate diet.
  • The goal for the vegetarian in diet planning is the same as the omnivore: consume a variety of foods to obtain all of the needed nutrients.
  • Use the same diet planning principles.
use a vegetarian pyramid
Use a Vegetarian Pyramid

Visit Vegetarian Resource Group

www.vrg.org

summary
Summary
  • Vegetarians described by what is omitted from the diet.
  • Wide diversity of dietary practices.
  • Several benefits to vegetarianism.
  • Some nutrient concerns.
  • Adequate dietary intake requires diet planning.
  • Same diet planning principles as omnivores used.