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Ionic Compounds and Naming

Ionic Compounds and Naming

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Ionic Compounds and Naming

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  1. Ionic Compounds and Naming Chapter 4.10,4.11 and 5

  2. When we begin combining elements we make compounds. • Two types • Non-metal and metal • Non-metal and non-metal • Each type has unique physical and chemical properties • Look at non-metal and metal in detail now and non-metal and non-metal later Combining Elements

  3. A metal and a non-metal combination make an ionic compound • Each element or polyatomic group is an ion • What makes an ion? • An ion is a charged particle (positive or negative) • Difference between protons and electrons in an element • Ca vs Ca+2 (Ca+2 has 2 less electrons than Ca) Ionic compounds

  4. The number of valence electrons determines the type of ion formed • Trying to reach noble gas state • Lose or gain electrons to reach magic number 8 • Valence electrons are known by group number • Main group elements only • These atoms follow a pattern down the column

  5. Valence electrons vs charge

  6. How many valence electrons do the following elements have? • What would their charge be? • K Mg Al C • P O Br Ar • Do you see any pattern to the charges? • Metals make positive ions (cations) • Non-metals make negative electrons (anions) Practice

  7. We can write ions as ionic equations • K+1 can be written as K → K+1 + 1e- • N-3 can be written as N + 3e- → N-3 • Try these: • Mg and O Ionic Equations

  8. All ionic compounds are overall neutral; that is when you add up all the charges the sum is zero • NaCl is made with Na+1 and Cl-1 • MgO is made with Mg+2 and O-2 • Na2O is made with 2 Na+1 and O-2 • MgCl2 is made with Mg+2 and 2 Cl-1 Making ionic compounds

  9. Put the following elements together to make ionic compounds • Be and F • Li and S • Ba and N • K and As • Cs and C Practice

  10. What about the elements in-between group II and III? • Called transition metals because they can make more than one positive charge • On our tables you can tell by the small black number above the symbol….. Transition metals

  11. Cu II and S • W IV and O • Pd II and N • Cr III and Si Practice with transition metals

  12. Some ions are actually a group of elements combined together • Can not be broken apart • Act as one unit • These are known as polyatomic ions • See handout Polyatomic Ions

  13. Naming Binary Compounds

  14. We can easily name binary compounds both ionic and covalent (non-metals) • Non-metals and metals use type I and II • Non-metals and non-metals use type III Naming Binary Compounds

  15. Type I • Metal bonded to non-metal • Metal always listed and named first • No changes in the metal name • Metals only make ONE ion (known as simple metals) • Anion is listed second • Use the root of the name and add –ide • Hydrogen becomes hydride • Halogens remove –ine and add –ide • Oxide, nitride, sulfide • NaCl is sodium chloride Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

  16. Type II • use transition metals • Cation is first again and anion is changed the same as type I • The difference is that we need to designate the charge of the transition metal with a Roman Number • USE THE ANION TO DETERMINE THE CHARGE OF THE CATION!!! • CuO • Oxygen is -2 • The compound must be neutral • So the copper (Cu) must be +2 • The compound is named copper II oxide

  17. Name the following ionic compounds: • CaF AlCl3 MgI2 • CuBr2 Al2O3 CrCl3 • Fe2O3FeO FeCl3 • The number of atoms has no influence on the name for type I and II Practice

  18. Polyatomic ions just use their name • K2SO4 would be potassium sulfate • NH4NO3 would be ammonium nitrate • Co(NO2)2 • (NH4)3N Polyatomic Ions

  19. Type III • Non-metal to non-metals • NUMBER OF ATOMS IS IMPORTANT FOR TYPE III • Use prefixes to determine the number of atoms in the name • Same naming scheme as type I • Use entire name for 1st element • -ide for 2nd • Add prefixes for multiple atoms • Note: mono- is never used on 1st element

  20. Prefixes • 1 – mono • 2 – di • 3- tri • 4- tetra • 5- penta • 6- hexa • 7- hepta • 8- octa • 9- nona • 10- deca

  21. CCl4 would be carbon tetrachloride • N2O2 would be dinitrogen dioxide • PCl5 P4O6 • N2O5 SF6 • CO NO2 Practice

  22. Acids are a special group of binary compounds and have their own naming rules. • All acids begin with H and are dissolved in water • Acids without oxygen • Use root of anion and add –ic and acid • HCl is hydrochloric acid • Acids with oxygen • -ite becomes –ous • -ate becomes –ic • H2SO3 is sulfurous acid • H2SO4 is sulfuric acid Naming Acids

  23. Name these acids • HF • HNO3 • H3PO4 Practice

  24. Write the formulas from these names: • Nitric acid • Potassium sulfide • Sodium carbonate • Dinitrogenpentoxide Reversing the process

  25. Naming hydrates uses the Greek prefixes as in Type III naming. • First name the binary ionic compound, then the hydrate. • CuSO4.6H2O would be • copper (II) sulfate hexahydrate. Hydrates

  26. Solid zinc metal and aqueous lead (II) nitrate react to form aqueous zinc nitrate and solid lead metal. Writing word/chemical equations