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Naming Ionic Compounds. Monatomic Ions. Made from a single atom gaining or losing an electron (based on valence electrons) Element Oxidation # Li + 1 Be + 2 O - 2 F - 1 Writing ions- write symbol, write charge as a superscript Ex. Al +3.

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monatomic ions
Monatomic Ions
  • Made from a single atom gaining or losing an electron (based on valence electrons)

Element Oxidation #

Li +1

Be +2

O -2

F -1

  • Writing ions- write symbol, write charge as a superscript

Ex. Al+3

writing ionic compounds
Writing Ionic Compounds
  • Made of two parts – cation & anion
  • Name the cation first (typically a metal) just as it appears on periodic table

Na+ Sodium

Ca+2  Calcium

writing ionic compounds with transition metals
Writing Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals
  • Most transition metals have more than one oxidation number
  • If the transition metal has more than one oxidation number, you must represent it with a Roman Numeral in its name
transition metals to know
Transition Metals to know
  • Scandium column – always+3, no Roman Numeral needed
  • F-block – always+3, no Roman Numeral needed
  • Ag – always+1, no Roman Numeral needed
  • Cd & Zn – always+2, no Roman Numeral needed
transition metals to know cont
Transition Metals to know (cont.)
  • Sn & Pb – either+2 or+4
  • Sn & Pb and all other transition metal’s oxidation # will be determined by “uncrossing the criss-cross”

(I’ll explain in a minute)

Examples:

Fe+2 Iron II Fe+3  Iron III

Al+3  Aluminum Cu+2  Copper II

Cu+  Copper I Zn+2  Zinc

writing ionic compounds cont
Writing Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Write the anion next (typically a nonmetal)
  • Change the ending to –ide

Cl- , chlorine  chloride

O-2 , oxygen  oxide

**If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the name stays the same**

writing ionic compounds practice
Writing Ionic Compounds Practice

NaCl

FeS

AlCl3

Na2O

Al2O3

CuO

Sodium Chloride

Iron II Sulfide

Aluminum Chloride

Sodium Oxide

Aluminum Oxide

Copper II Oxide

how to determine the oxidation number of transition metals
How to determine the Oxidation Number of Transition Metals
  • Identify metal as a Transition with multiple oxidation numbers
  • Uncross the “criss-cross”
  • If nothing to uncross, identify the charge of the anion (they will always only have one oxidation number), charges have been simplified
  • Transition metal charge is the same as anion charge (just +)
how to determine the oxidation number of transition metals cont
How to determine the Oxidation Number of Transition Metals (cont.)

Ex. #1

Fe2O3

+3 -2

Fe2O3

Iron III Oxide

how to determine the oxidation number of transition metals cont11
How to determine the Oxidation Number of Transition Metals (cont.)

Ex.#2

FeS

**No subscripts to show charge, so ID anion charge

  • S = -2, therefore Fe must be +2
  • Name = Iron II Sulfide

Ex.#3

CuO

  • Name = Copper II Oxide
writing an ionic formula
Writing an Ionic Formula
  • Identify the charge on each part of the compound (cation and anion)
  • Remember…the sum of the oxidation numbers MUST EQUAL ZERO
  • Add subscripts to balance charges (can be done with criss-cross method)
writing an ionic formula cont
Writing an Ionic Formula (cont.)

Ex. #1 = Calcium Chloride

Ions  Ca = +2Chlorine = -1

+2 -1

Ca Cl

Formula = CaCl2

(Remember…never write 1’s)

writing an ionic formula cont14
Writing an Ionic Formula (cont.)

Ex.#2 = Magnesium Oxide

Ions  Mg = +2 O = -2

Use “criss-cross”  Mg2O2

**Simplify when possible  MgO

extra rule
Extra Rule
  • Can’t change a Polyatomic Ions subscripts (if you need multiple polyatomics, you must put the ion symbol in brackets)

Ex. PO4 = has a -3 charge

Ca = has a +2 charge

Formula = Ca3(PO4)2

changes to polyatomic ions
Changes to Polyatomic Ions
  • We must know the “root” polyatomic ion (the ones on our list)
  • Oxygens can either be added or subtracted from the formula we know
  • When that happens, the polyatomic ion name changes
changes to polyatomic ions cont
Changes to Polyatomic Ions (cont.)

1 more oxygen  per- -ate

Root  -ate

1less oxygen  -ite

2 less oxygens  hypo- -ite

**the charge remains the same**

Ex. SO5 = Persulfate SO4 = Sulfate

SO3 = Sulfite SO2 = hyposulfite