1. The same substance always has the same density regardless of size.
3. As temperature increases, density decreases 6. Water is most dense at 4o C, when it is a liquid
7. The true shape of the Earth is an oblate spheroid, but from space it looks like a perfect sphere. 8. The best model of the earth is a sphere
10. To determine the earth’s circumference, the altitude of the sun is needed at 2 locations.
15. The closer the isolines (isobars, isotherms, contours), the steeper the gradient!
16. The earth rotates from West to East (24 hours) or counterclockwise
18. All celestial objects appear to rise in the east and set in the west.
19. The moon has phases because of the angle at which we view it (Half is ALWAYS lit!).
20. Planets appear to go backwards (retrograde motion) as the earth passes them in space.
21. Summer Solstice is June 21st 22. Winter Solstice is December 21st 23. Equinoxes: March 21st and September 21st
25. The lower the altitude of the sun, the longer the shadow it casts.
26. Foucault’s pendulum and the coriolis effect prove the earth rotates.
32. The half-life of a radioactive element cannot be changed! • Ocean crust is thin and made of basalt. • Continental crust is thick and made of granite!
35. Energy moves from source to sink (high concentration to low concentration).
Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in warm, moist climates and involves a change in chemical composition of the rock. • Physical weathering occurs most rapidly in cold, moist climates due to frost action.
Air moves clockwise and outward around a high pressure system. • Air moves counterclockwise and toward the center of a low pressure system.
As temperature increases, air pressure decreases. (Indirect) • As moisture increases, pressure decreases (Indirect). • Air pressure decreases with altitude.
Winds are due to air pressure differences.49. Wind blows from areas of high pressure to low pressure
52. The closer the air temperature and dew point temperature the greater the chance of precipitation (increased humidity).
54. Cold Front57. Cold fronts move the fastest! Cold fronts force warm air up and are associated with short narrow bands of heavy precipitation and thunder/lightning in advance of the front!
55. Warm Front Warm fronts ride up the back of cold air and produce longer periods of steady rain and occur both in front of and behind the advancing front.
58. Porosity does NOT depend on particle size.59. As particle size increases, permeability increases!
63. Apparent diameter of objects (sun, moon) gets larger when the object is closer to Earth (perihelion/perigee)
64. Vertical rays (overhead sun) can occur between 23 ½ o N and 23 1/2o S.
65. Index fossils are good time markers (widely spread, lived a short time).