civil engineering n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CIVIL ENGINEERING PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

CIVIL ENGINEERING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on

CIVIL ENGINEERING. The People Serving Profession. What do Civil Engineers Do?. Areas of Study. Structural Engineering Transportation Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Construction Engineering and Management Water Resources Environmental. Water Resources. Ground water contamination

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CIVIL ENGINEERING' - ipo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
civil engineering

CIVIL ENGINEERING

The People Serving Profession

areas of study
Areas of Study
  • Structural Engineering
  • Transportation Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Construction Engineering and Management
  • Water Resources
  • Environmental
water resources
Water Resources
  • Ground water contamination
  • Remote sensing
  • Storm water management
  • Stream channel erosion
  • Flooding
  • Urban water resources
  • Water quality monitoring
environmental
Environmental
  • Air and water
  • Proper management of the environment
  • Remediation of existing contaminants
  • Prevention of future contamination
  • Sustainable resource management

At UMBC, Environmental Engineering includes water resources

traditionally
Traditionally
  • Water distribution networks
  • Sewage treatment plants
  • Drinking water treatment plants
slide7
Now
  • Detection and modeling fate and transport of contaminants
  • Restoring environmental quality
  • Develop industrial processes for ecological preservation and enhance sustainability
  • http://www3.lehigh.edu/engineering/cee
why environmental engineering
Why Environmental Engineering?
  • Appeals to girls
  • Help make the world a better place!
chemistry review acids
Chemistry Review – Acids
  • Taste sour (vinegar, lemon juice)
  • Turn blue litmus paper red
  • Destroy chemical properties of bases
  • Conduct an electric current
  • Are corrosive
  • Can donate a proton or accept electrons to form a covalent bond with a base
  • pH <7
chemistry review bases
Chemistry Review – Bases
  • Taste bitter (mustard, cough medicine)
  • Restore blue color to red litmus paper
  • Destroy chemical properties of acids
  • Conduct an electric current
  • Feel slippery
  • Can accept a proton or donate electrons to form a covalent bond with an acid
  • pH >7
strong or weak
Strong or Weak?

STRONG

  • Dissociates 100% in solution
  • The [H+] = concentration of acid
  • The [OH-] = concentration of base
  • Has a strong attraction for [H+] or [OH-]

WEAK

  • Dissociate less than 100%
strong acids
Strong Acids
  • HCl hydrochloric acid
  • HNO3 nitric acid
  • H2SO4 sulfuric acid
  • HBr hydrobromic acid
  • HI hydroiodic acid
  • HClO4 perchloric acid
strong bases
Strong Bases
  • LiOH lithium hydroxide
  • NaOH sodium hydroxide
  • KOH potassium hydroxide
  • RbOH rubidium hydroxide
  • CsOH cesium hydroxide
  • *Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide
  • *Sr(OH)2 strontium hydroxide
  • *Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide

* Completely dissociate in solutions of .01 M or less

salts
Salts
  • The non-water product of an acid – base neutralization

Example: HCl + NaOH --> NaCl + H2O

slide15
pH
  • -log[H+]
  • [H+] is in molarity (M = mole/L)
  • Molarity the number of moles of solute dissolved in a liter of solution (solvent)
  • For a strong acid, [H+] = [acid]
  • For a strong base, [OH-] = [base]
  • pOH = -log[OH-]
  • pH + pOH = 14
ph examples
pH Examples

Strong Acids

  • 0.10 M solution of HCl pH = - log (0.100) = 1.00
  • 1.00 M solution of HBr pH = - log (1.00) = 0.00
  • 2.00 M solution of HCl pH = - log (2.00) = -0.30

Strong Bases

  • 0.10 M solution of NaOH pOH = - log (0.100) = 1.00

pH = 14.00 – 1.00 = 13.00

  • 0.050 M solution of KOH pOH = - log (0.050) = 1.30

pH = 14.00 – 1.30 = 12.70

law of chemical equilibrium
Law of Chemical Equilibrium

aA + bB cC +dD

[C]c[D]d

= Ke

[A]a[B]b

Ke = equilibrium constant

a, b, c, d = stochiometric coefficients

equilibrium constant
Equilibrium Constant
  • Ke measures the extent to which a reaction goes before equilibrium is attained
  • The larger the Ke:
    • the larger the quantity of products
    • The more complete the reaction
calculating the ph
Calculating the pH
  • HAc + H2O H3O+ + Ac- (Ac = CH3COOH)
  • Ka = ( [H3O+ ][Ac-] ) / [HAc] = 1.77 x 10-5
  • [H3O+ ] = x and [Ac-] = x because of the one-to-one molar ratio
  • 1.77 x 10-5 = {(x) (x)} / [HAc]
  • [HAc] started at 0.100 M ended at (0.100 – x) as HAc molecules dissociated
  • 1.77 x 10-5 = ((x) (x)) / (0.100-x) solve with the quadratic formula
  • Or approximate: since x is small, (0.100 – x) appr. equals 0.100
  • 1.77 x 10-5 = x2 / 0.100
  • x2 = 1.77 x 10-6
  • x = 1.33 x 10-3 M = [H3O+] = [H+]
  • pH = -log(1.33 x 10-3)
  • pH = 2.87

http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/AcidBase/AcidBase.html

titration curves
Titration Curves
  • Show how the pH of a solution changes with the addition of a standard solution of base or acid
  • Use an acid or base of a known concentration to determine the concentration of an unknown solution
  • Determine the number of active sites on a solid that can adsorb a contaminant
filtration system
Filtration System
  • Combines carbon filtration with ion exchange and sub-micron filtration
  • Significantly reduces:
    • Chlorine
    • Lead
    • Synthetic chemicals
    • Volatile organic compounds
    • Turbidity
    • Water-borne parasites
three step process
Three Step Process
  • Vacuum Filtration - removal of solids
  • Granular Activated Carbon - adsorbs molecular organic and inorganic contaminants (metals)
  • High pressure membrane filtration -removes ions
experiment
Experiment
  • Test pH of water before filtration
    • Base and acid
  • Titrate solution
  • Filter solids
  • Add granular activated carbon (GAC)
  • Filter out GAC
  • Repeat titration