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The Emergence of the Two Party System and Jacksonian Democracy. The Election of 1824. Republican Party: the only party in operation prior to the 1824 election Several Republican factions put up their own candidates for the Presidency
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The Election of 1824 • Republican Party: the only party in operation prior to the 1824 election • Several Republican factions put up their own candidates for the Presidency • Adams fell behind Andrew Jackson in both popular and electoral votes, but received more than William H. Crawford and Henry Clay • No candidate had a majority of electoral votes, thus, the election was decided among the top three by the House of Representatives • Clay threw his House support to Adams • Once President, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State • Jackson charged that a "corrupt bargain" had taken place • Immediately began campaigning to gain the Presidency from Adams in 1828.
John Quincy Adams: Inaugural Address (March 4, 1825) • Well aware of Congressional hostility towards him, Adams attempted to reconcile a divided nation by appealing to shared history and values • “Of the two great political parties which have divided the opinions and feelings of our country, the candid and the just will now admit that both have contributed splendid talents, spotless integrity, ardent patriotism, and disinterested sacrifices to the formation and administration of this Government...” • “There still remains one effort of magnanimity, one sacrifice of prejudice and passion, to be made by the individuals throughout the nation who have heretofore followed the standards of political party. It is that of discarding every remnant of rancor against each other, of embracing as countrymen and friends, and of yielding to talents and virtue alone that confidence which in times of contention for principle was bestowed only upon those who bore the badge of party communion.” John Quincy Adams
The Election of 1828 • In the 1828 Election nominations were no longer made by Congressional caucuses, but rather by conventions and the state legislatures • In essence, this election was a rematch between Adams and Jackson • A true mud-slinging contest • Adams accused of misusing public funds • Jackson was accused of adultery and of murder for executing militia deserters and dueling participants • The election was a clear victory for Jackson, but highly sectional in nature • The South, West, Pennsylvania and New York went for Jackson; New England voted for Adams • The first election to be decided by popular vote
Andrew Jackson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYh7pato4uE
Jackson’s First Inaugural Address(March 4, 1829) • Andrew Jackson and his followers had strong beliefs about how government should run • Jacksonians believed in states' rights, the sale of federal lands, and westward expansion • “…I may be called on to pursue in regard to the rights of the separate States I hope to be animated by a proper respect for those sovereign members of our Union…”
Jackson’s Inaugural Party • Jackson invited his supporters to the White House to celebrate his inauguration • The guests became unruly in their celebration and property was damaged • Jackson himself had to be protected from harm • “What a scene did we witness! The Majesty of the People had disappeared, and a rabble, a mob, of boys, negros, women, children, scrambling fighting, romping. What a pity what a pity!...The President, after having been literally nearly pressed to death and almost suffocated and torn to pieces by the people in their eagerness to shake hands with Old Hickory, had retreated through the back way… Cut glass and china to the amount of several thousand dollars had been broken in the struggle to get the refreshments, punch…Ladies fainted, men were seen with bloody noses and such a scene of confusion took place as is impossible to describe,--those who got in could not get out by the door again, but had to scramble out of windows… the windows were thrown open, and the torrent found an outlet, which otherwise might have proved fatal…” -Margaret Bayard Smith March 11th, 1829 Image of Jackson’s Inaugural Party
Jackson’s First Annual Message to Congress (December 8, 1829) • After the circumstances of his defeat in 1824, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College • He also tried to democratize Federal office-holding • State machines were being built on patronage • New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . “ • Jackson also decried office-holders who seemed to enjoy life tenure • He believed that offices should rotate among deserving applicants
Cherokee Nation vs. the State of Georgia (1831) • By the 19th century, the expanding white population created friction with Indian tribes • States did not want independent Indian enclaves within the state • Tribes did not want to relocate • The Compact of 1802: Georgia gave up its western land claims to the federal government • In exchange, Washington promised treaties to relocate tribes living within Georgia • When Georgia moved to extend state laws over Cherokee tribal lands in 1830, the matter went to the U.S. Supreme Court • The court ruled that the Cherokee were not a sovereign nation and therefore refused to hear the case • In Worcester v. State of Georgia (1832), the court ruled that Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory • Only the national government had authority in Indian affairs • Jackson put pressure on the Cherokee to sign a removal treaty, the Treaty of New Echota • The removal of the Cherokee, known as the “Trail of Tears,” led to the deaths of 2,000-4,000 Cherokee
Jackson’s Proclamation of February 10th, 1831 • At the end of Jackson’s first term, the President was confronted with illegal speculators in the federal territory of Arkansas • This proclamation outlines the problem and consequences for those who defy federal authority • “Whereas… certain persons pretending to act under the authority of the Mexican Government… have attempted to and do survey, for sale and settlement, a portion of the public lands in said Territory… Whereas such acts and practices are contrary to the law of the land… and are offenses against the peace and public tranquility of the said Territory… Now… I, Andrew Jackson, President of the United States… do issue this my proclamation, commanding… all persons who have unlawfully entered upon, taken possession of, or made any settlement on the public lands in the said counties… forthwith to depart and remove therefrom… and to execute and carry into effect this proclamation I do hereby authorize the employment of such military force as may be necessary… and warn all offenders in the premises that they will be prosecuted and punished…”
Jackson’s Veto Message (June 10, 1832) • For Jackson, the Bank of the United States represented a monopoly • For him, it was a private institution which had too much influence on the nation's finances • He declared the bank was unauthorized by the Constitution, subversive of states’ rights, and dangerous to people’s liberty • When Jackson vetoed the bank bill, it appealed to the masses, who blamed the bank for the Panic of 1819 • After the election of 1832, Jackson proceeded to destroy the Bank of the United States • He withdrew the national deposit from the Bank and stored it in state owned banks • Initially, land sales, canal construction, cotton production, and manufacturing boomed • State debts rose sharply, however, and inflation increased dramatically • Some argue that Jackson’s bank policy was directly responsible for the Panic of 1837
Henry Clay’s reaction Jackson’s Veto (July 10, 1832) • In the early 19th century, the federal government coined only a small supply of money • Private commercial banks were the principal sources of circulating currency • The notes they issued were backed by a limited amount of precious metal and fluctuated greatly in value. • In an effort to control these notes issued by local state banks, the federal government chartered the Second Bank of the United States in 1816 • Many people saw it as the cause of the Panic of 1819 • In 1832, Jackson’s opponents like Henry Clay and Daniel Webster used the issue of rechartering the bank as to polarize public opinion before the election. Although the bank’s charter did not expire until 1836, Clay and Webster wanted to force Jackson to take a clear pro-bank or anti-bank position. Their goal was to force to him either to sign the bill for recharter, alienating voters hostile to the bank, or veto it, antagonizing conservative voters who favored a sound banking system.
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (November 24, 1832) • Towards the end of his first term, Jackson was confronted with the ''Nullification Crisis'' • Precipitated by protective Tariff of 1828 • The tariff made imported manufactured goods more expensive than those made in the North • Business and farming interests in the state had hoped that Jackson would modify tariff laws • In their view, all the benefits of protection were going to Northern manufacturers • While the country as a whole grew richer, South Carolina grew poorer • Incited debate over states' rights • Ultimately threatened violent hostilities between South Carolina and the federal government, and the dissolution of the Union • Despite South Carolina's protests, Congress passed another protective tariff in 1832 • Southerners were disappointed • The tariff failed to moderate protective barriers • South Carolina endorsed "nullification," enunciated by John C. Calhoun, Jackson's vice president • The legislature passed laws to enforce the ordinance, including authorization for military force • A clash was therefore set between the federal government and South Carolina John C. Calhoun
Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification (December 10, 1832) • Jackson thought nullification was tantamount to treason • Dispatched ships to Charleston harbor • Threatened to go to South Carolina and hang any man who refused to obey the law • Jackson issued a proclamation that disputed a states' right to nullify a federal law • Congress then passed the Force Act that authorized the use of military force against any state that resisted the tariff acts • Crisis worsened until 1833 when Henry Clay again took up his role as the Great Compromiser • On the same day the Force Bill passed, he secured passage of the Tariff of 1833 • This provided for the gradual reduction of the tariff over 10 years • Helped to preserve the supremacy of the Federal government over the states • One precursor to the developing conflict between the North and South over economics and slavery. • None of the southern states backed South Carolina • Nonetheless, many southerners declared their sympathies to be with the people of South Carolina • The conflict helped enforce the idea of secession which ultimately led to the Civil War • As the Unionist, James Petigru, wrote at the time, "Nullification has done its work. It has prepared the minds of men for a separation of the states - and when the question is moved again it will be distinctly union or disunion" • In 1860, South Carolina was the first state to secede James Petigru
Anti-Masonic Party • Anti-Masonic party emerged in 1826 • Nation’s first powerful third party • Starting out of protest to the cover up of a murder of defecting Mason, William Morgan, the party swiftly gained popularity because they provided a reason for the unresponsiveness of the government • In 1832 the party ran William Writ for President against Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson
National Republican Party (1828-1834) • National Republican Party emerged after election of 1828 • Composed of Jackson’s political foes and supporters of John Quincy Adams • Led by John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John M. Clayton, and Samuel Southard • Party promoted the National Bank, a protective tariff to stimulate the economy, and federal government subsidization of national infrastructure improvement • Strongly opposed the Indian Removal Act • In 1832 the National Republicans ran Henry Clay for President. Daniel Webster John M. Clayton Samuel Southard
Election of 1832 The election of 1832 was the first one in American history to show evidence of a strong third party. Although the prominent Anti-Masonic party only received seven electoral votes, they did manage to pull support away from Mason Henry Clay.
Jackson’s Farewell Address (March 4, 1837) • At the end of his second term, Jackson delivered a memorable farewell address • Noteworthy because of its prescience • Jackson warned against sectarian divisions especially those existing between the North and the South • He also clarified his position towards many earlier policies where, he felt, his opposition was perhaps misinterpreted • “But amid this general prosperity…We behold systematic efforts publicly made to sow the seeds of discord between different parts of the United States and to place party divisions directly upon geographical distinctions; to excite the South against the North and the North against the South…Appeals, too, are constantly made to sectional interests …possible dissolution of the Union has at length become an ordinary and familiar subject of discussion…Delude not yourselves with the belief that a breach once made may be afterwards repaired. If the Union is once severed, the line of separation will grow wider and wider, and the controversies which are now debated and settled in the halls of legislation will then be tried in fields of battle and determined by the sword…”
Liberty Party • Liberty Party emerged in 1839 • Members of the Liberty party were committed to the abolition of slavery • In 1840 and 1844 they ran James G. Binney for president • “Resolved, That the party ... will demand the absolute and unqualified divorce of the General Government from slavery, and also the restoration of equality of rights, among men, in every State where the party exists, or may exist.”
Democratic Party • Composed of John Quincy Adams' opponents and the loyal supporters of Andrew Jackson • Democratic Party believed in the power of a strong executive power • They espoused many of the beliefs of the Jacksonian Democracy • States’ rights • Indian removal • Westward expansion • The sale of federal land