Plate Location • The volcano of Mt. Kilauea is located on the Pacific Plate. • Much of the Volcano is below sea level. • Hot, solid rock rises to the hot spot from greater depths. Due to the lower pressure at the shallower depth, the rock begins to melt, forming magma. The magma rises through the Pacific Plate to supply the active volcanoes. The older islands were once located above the stationary hot spot but were carried away as the Pacific Plate drifted to the northwest .
PLATE TECTONICS • Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called "plate-boundary"volcanoes. However, some active volcanoes are not associated with plate boundaries, and many of these volcanoes form linear chains in the interior of some oceanic plates. The Hawaiian Islands provide the best example of an "intra-plate" volcanic chain, developed by the northwest-moving Pacific Plate passing over an inferred "hot spot" that initiates the magma-generation and volcano-formation process.
Another type of eruption took place in 1924 when rainwater trickled down to lava near the surface of Kilauea, turned to steam and created a steam explosion. This type of eruption is called phreatic. • Kilauea is in the Shield-building stage and is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. • Shield volcanoes have gently sloping sides and are formed from layers of lava. Eruptions are typically non-explosive. Shield volcanoes produce fast flowing fluid lava that can flow for many miles. Examples of shield volcanoes include the Hawaiian volcanoes. Although these eruptions destroy property, death or injury to humans rarely occurs.
Interesting Facts about Kilauea • Sometime before 1000 A.D., Kilauea volcano blasted skyward in an eruption so massive it sent rocks and dust as much as 18 miles into the air. • Two very large eruptions took place at Kilauea 2,100 years ago and 2,700 years ago. • Most of the hot molten rock makes its way through an underground tube system to the Pacific Ocean. • Kilauea stands just under 4200 feet tall at it's highest point • It is said that Kilauea is the home to Pele, the volcano goddess of ancient Hawaiian legends. • Everyday Kilauea Volcano erupts a half million cubic yards of lava.
Hawaiian Meaning: “Kilauea” means spewing or much spreading, apparently in reference to the lava flows that it erupts. • Number of Historical Eruptions: 61 not including the continuous lava-lake activity. • Oldest Dated Rocks23,000 years old • Estimated Age of Earliest Subaerial Eruptions50,000-100,000 years • Estimated Age of First Eruption of Kilauea300,000-600,000 years before present. • Most recent eruption has been continuous since January 3, 1983
The current eruption of Kilauea (known as the Pu`u `O`o Eruption) started in Jan. 1983 and as of January 2000 Sporadic explosions will cause destruction but hopefully not loss of life. Lava flows unfortunately destroyed 181 houses and resurfaced 13 km of highway with as much as 25 m of lava. It has also destroyed a the National Park visitor center and a 700 year-old Hawaiian temple There are no signs that the current eruption is slowing or will come to an end anytime soon.
Pathway of molten rock during the eruption of Pu’u ‘O’o, located at the East Rift Zone.
Flowers growing on Mt. Kilauea Volcanic Vents
This is what happens when Mt. Kilauea erupts —It takes out a whole jungle—
Work Cited http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/hotspots.html http://www.myspy.us/cgi-bin/nph-paidmember.cgi/111011a/ http://www.georesources.co.uk/kilauea.htm http://www.volcanoscapes.com/vs-99.html