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contraception. Junior health. Methods of contraception. Behavioral Hormonal Barrier Permanent . Behavioral methods. Predicting fertility: Basal body temperature and calendar method Withdrawal/pullout Abstinence The only 100% effective way to prevent pregnancy, STIs, HIV/AIDS.

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contraception

contraception

Junior health

methods of contraception
Methods of contraception
  • Behavioral
  • Hormonal
  • Barrier
  • Permanent
behavioral methods
Behavioral methods
  • Predicting fertility: Basal body temperature and calendar method
  • Withdrawal/pullout
  • Abstinence
    • The only 100% effective way to prevent pregnancy, STIs, HIV/AIDS
basal body temp
Basal body temp
  • What is it?
    • Lowest temperature of the body at rest
  • How does it work?
    • Ovulation raises body temperature ½ - 1 degree F, and temp will drop if fertilization does not occur
calendar
calendar
  • What is it?
    • Predicting fertility based on menstrual cycles
  • How does it work?
    • Women chart previous menstrual cycles to predict the days they are fertile and infertile
withdrawal pullout
Withdrawal/Pullout
  • What is it?
    • The man takes his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates
  • How does it work?
    • Male needs to ejaculate away from female; sperm on legs and labia can still travel in vagina
  • Notes:
    • Depends on a male’s self knowledge and self-control
  • Access: Free, available to anyone
  • Effectiveness: 78-96%
hormonal methods
Hormonal methods
  • The Patch
  • The Pill
  • Vaginal Ring
  • The shot
  • Implant
  • IUD
  • Emergency Contraception
  • These methods add chemicals similar to hormones to stop the release of an egg and weaken the sperm
  • Hormones change your cervical mucus and uterine lining, slow sperm, and reduce ability of fertilized egg to implant into the uterine wall.
the pill
The pill
  • What is it?
    • A pill taken orally every day at about the same time
  • Notes:
    • There are many different brands. Your doctor can help you find the right one for you.
  • You period can occur monthly, every 3 months, or not at all
  • Access:
    • Prescription needed
  • Effectiveness
    • 91-99.7%
the patch
The patch
  • What is it?
    • A bandage- like patch that sticks to your skin
  • How does it work?
    • Changed weekly, no patch on 4th week
    • Hormones are absorbed through skin
  • Notes:
    • Less effective if you weigh over 198 pounds. May cause skin irritation
  • Access:
    • Prescription needed
  • Effectiveness:
    • 91-99.7%
vaginal ring
Vaginal ring
  • What is it?
    • A clear, soft, flexible 2 inch circle worn in the vagina
  • How does it work?
    • The body absorbs hormones from the ring through vaginal wall. The ring is inserted and left in vagina for 3 weeks.
  • Notes:
    • One size fits all, nether partner

usually feels ring

  • Access:
    • Prescription needed
  • Effectiveness:
    • 91-99.7%
the shot
The shot
  • What is it?
    • A long acting hormone injection
  • How does it work?
    • Female is given a shot one time every 3 months
  • Notes:
    • Not reversible- once the injection occurs, the hormones are in the woman for at least 3 months. It may take a long time to get pregnant after the shot.
      • More chance of weight gain than any other method
  • Access:
    • Clinic/doctor visit needed every 3 months
  • Effectiveness:
    • 94-99.8%
the implant
The implant
  • What is it?
    • A soft rod 1 ½ inches long placed under the skin in your upper arm
  • How does it work?
    • Slowly releases hormones into your system
  • Notes:
    • Prevents pregnancy for 3 years, but can be taken out at any time
  • Access:
    • Clinic/doctor visit needed every 3 years
  • Effectiveness:
    • 99.95%
intra uterine device iud
Intra Uterine Device (IUD)
  • What is it?
    • A small plastic “T” with a string inserted into the uterus
  • How does it work?
    • Releases synthetic progestin hormone that changes cervical mucus, fallopian tubes and the uterine lining. Stops or slows sperm and egg.
  • Notes:
    • Last 5 years. Insertion can cause a few minutes of pain but removal is fast and easy
  • Access:
    • Clinic/doctor visit needed for insertion
    • and removal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 99.8%
emergency contraception e c morning after pill plan b
Emergency contraceptionE.C.- Morning After Pill- Plan B
  • What is it?
    • A pill or combination of pills you take after sex to prevent pregnancy
  • How does it work?
    • Contains a higher dosage of the same hormones found in regular birth control
  • Notes:
    • Won’t stop an existing pregnancy
  • Access:
    • Available at pharmacy
  • Effectiveness:
    • Approximately 95% if taken within first 24 hours of unprotected sex
barrier methods
Barrier methods
  • Male condom
  • Female condom
  • Diaphragm
  • Cervical cap
  • Spermicides
male condom
Male condom
  • What is it?
    • A thin covering that you unroll over an erect penis. Made of latex usually
  • How?
    • Put on before any genital contact
  • Notes:
    • May decrease sensation for men
    • Lubrication makes condom less likely to break
  • Access:
    • Easy to buy in a store or online
      • Inexpensive, usually offered free at health clinic
  • Effectiveness:
    • 82-98%
female condom
Female condom
  • What is it?
    • A soft, loose pouch that is inserted in the vagina
    • Flexible rings at each end hold it in place
  • Notes:
    • Can be used if allergic to latex (made of nitrile)
  • Access:
    • Available at many pharmacies, clinics, online
  • Effectiveness:
    • 79-95%
diaphragm
diaphragm
  • What is it?
    • A soft, silicone dome that covers the cervix with a flexible rim that holds spermicide
  • How?
    • Must apply spermicide
    • Protection lasts 2 hours
    • Must be kept in for 6 hours after sex
  • Access:
    • Doctor/clinic visit needed for prescription and fitting
  • Effectiveness:
    • 82-94%
cervical cap
Cervical cap
  • What is it?
    • A soft, silicone dome that covers the cervix with a flexible rim that holds spermicide
  • How?
    • Must apply spermicide
    • Protects for 42 hours
    • Must be kept in for 6 hours after sex
  • Access:
    • Doctor/clinic visit needed for prescription and fitting
  • Effectiveness:
    • 77%
spermicides
spermicides
  • What is it?
    • Chemicals that go in the vagina before sex.
    • Immobilizes or kills sperm
    • Most work for 1 hour, sponge for 24 hours
  • How?
    • Most are applied 10 minutes prior to intercourse
  • Access:
    • Easy to buy in a pharmacy
  • Effectiveness:
    • 72-91%
  • Cream, gel, foam, film, suppository, sponge
long term permanent
Long Term/Permanent
  • Female: Tubal ligation
  • Male: Vasectomy
    • These procedures are permanent and are usually done by people 35+
    • Both procedures are done in a doctor’s office
  • IUD: Copper (10 years)
tubal ligation
Tubal ligation
  • Small incision is made in abdomen to access fallopian tubes
  • Fallopian tubes are blocked, burned, or clipped shut to prevent egg from traveling through the tubes
  • Recovery usually takes 4-6 days
vasectomy
vasectomy
  • A small incision is made to access the vas deferens, the tube the sperm travel from the testicle to the penis, and is sealed, tied, or cut
  • After a vasectomy, a male will still ejaculate, but there will not be any sperm present