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Contraception - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Contraception. Contraception. Birth Control Protect against unplanned pregnancy STIs Protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Teen Pregnancy. 750,000 teens in the US become pregnant every year Most are unplanned. Abstinence. Most effective way to prevent against pregnancy and STIs

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contraception1
Contraception
  • Birth Control
    • Protect against unplanned pregnancy
  • STIs
    • Protect against sexually transmitted diseases
teen pregnancy
Teen Pregnancy
  • 750,000 teens in the US become pregnant every year
  • Most are unplanned
abstinence
Abstinence
  • Most effective way to prevent against pregnancy and STIs
  • 100% effective every time!
  • No intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex
  • No opportunity for the sperm to meet the egg
  • No side effects
condoms
Condoms
  • Barrier method
  • Male and female
    • Males – thin sheath worn over the penis
    • Females –sheath with a ring at each end; one end is closed and inserted in the vagina, the other end is open and is outside the vagina
  • Work by keeping semen from entering the vagina
condoms1
Condoms
  • Cannot be reused
  • Work 85% of the time
  • Increases if always used correctly & effectively
  • Effective against STIs, however, they do not protect against infections spread from sores on the skin (such as the base of the penis or scrotum)
  • Cost: $0.50 - $1.00 each
the pill
The Pill
  • Daily pill that contains hormones to change the way the body works and prevent pregnancy
    • Ovaries and the uterus
  • Prevents ovulation
    • Females cannot get pregnant if they don’t ovulate because there is no egg to be fertilized
  • Thickens the mucus around the cervix
    • Makes it difficult for sperm to enter
  • Makes it difficult for the egg to attach to the uterus
the pill1
The Pill
  • 28 day cycles
    • 21 hormone pills
    • 7 no hormone pills – period
  • Take pill at the same time each day
  • When starting, should use additional contraception
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
  • 99% effective if taken correctly
  • Cost: $15 - $50 a month; perscription
the patch
The Patch
  • Thin, square patch that sticks to the skin
  • Releases hormones through the skin into the bloodstream
  • Hormones prevent ovulation
  • Thicken mucous of the cervix
  • Lining of the uterus
  • Use based on menstrual cycle
  • Change the patch once a week, for 3 weeks
  • Fourth week no patch is worn
the patch1
The Patch
  • Applied to one of these areas:
    • Abdomen, buttocks, upper arm, or upper torso
  • When starting, use an additional method of contraception
  • About 92% effective
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
  • Cost: $15 - $50 a month; perscription
intrauterine device iud
Intrauterine Device (IUD)
  • T-shaped piece of plastic about the size of a quarter that is place in the uterus
  • Two types
    • Copper covered – prevents sperm from fertilizing the egg; harder for egg to implant the uterus
    • Releases progesterone – thickens cervical mucus; possibly prevents ovulation
  • >99% effective
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
slide15
IUDs
  • Must be inserted by a doctor
  • Copper IUDs need to be replaced every 10 years
  • IUDs with hormones need to be replaced every 5 years
  • Cost: $200 - $400, plus the cost of having the doctor insert it and remove it
spermicide
Spermicide
  • Come in several different forms: cream, gel, foam, film, and suppositories
  • Contain nonoxynol-9, a chemical that kills sperm before it can enter the uterus
  • Can be used alone, but are more effective when used with another method of birth control, such as a condom or diaphragm
  • Must be placed in the vagina before sexual intercourse – 15 minutes
spermicide1
Spermicide
  • Only effective for an hour
  • 70% effective
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
  • Cost: $0.50 - $1 per use; drugstore
diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • Dome-shaped bowl, made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix
  • Keeps sperm from entering the uterus by blocking the cervix
  • Spermicide is put in the bowl and along its edges for added protection
  • After sex, the diaphragm must be kept in for at least 6 hours, but not more that 24 hours
  • Is removed by placing a finger in the vagina to pull it out
diaphragm1
Diaphragm
  • Each time it is removed, it must be washed, rinsed, and air dried, then stored in its case
  • Should be replaced every 2 years
  • 85% effective
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
  • Must get fit by a doctor
  • Cost: $15 - $75
birth control shot
Birth Control Shot
  • Long-acting form of progesterone – prevents ovulation
  • Is given as an injection in the upper arm or in the buttocks once every 3 months
  • 97% effective
  • Does NOT protect against STIs
  • Must be prescribed by a doctor
  • Cost: $60, each injection (3 months)
birth control ring
Birth Control Ring
  • A soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring about 2 inches in diameter
  • inserted into the vagina, where it slowly releases hormones through the vaginal wall into the bloodstream
  • Affect the ovaries and uterus to prevent ovulation; thicken cervical mucus; affect lining of the uterus
  • Used based on menstrual cycle
birth control ring1
Birth Control Ring
  • Remains inserted for 3 weeks
  • After 3 weeks it is removed for 1 week
  • When starting, another form of BC should be used
  • Ring held in place by the vaginal muscles
  • 92% effective
  • Cost: $30 - $50; perscription
implantable contraception
Implantable Contraception
  • a small, flexible plastic tube containing hormones that doctors insert just under the skin of the upper arm
  • Hormones
  • Can be used for up to 3 years
  • >99% effective
  • Doesn’t protect against STIs
  • Doctor
  • Cost: several hundred - $1000
female sterilization tubal litigation
Female Sterilization – Tubal Litigation
  • “Tubes Tied”
  • Permanent
  • Woman has her fallopian tubes tied or closed
  • Sperm cannot meet egg for fertilization
  • Done in a hospital or out patient surgical center
  • Effective immediately
male sterilization vasectomy
Male Sterilization - Vasectomy
  • Permanent
  • Operation that prevents a man’s sperm from going to his penis
  • His ejaculate fluid will never have any sperm in it
  • Outpatient surgical center
  • Takes about 12 weeks for sperm count to drop to 0 – use other BC until then
  • Failures can occur early on
douching
Douching
  • When a girl rinses out her vagina with a solution, such as water and vinegar
  • It does not prevent pregnancy!
  • Hundreds of thousand of sperm can reach the uterus by the time a girl begins to douche
  • The pressure may even push the sperm into the uterus
  • Vagina has it own natural cleansing system
  • DON’T USE IT – can lead to infection
withdrawal
Withdrawal
  • Withdrawal is when a guy removes his penis from the vagina before he ejaculates (also called coitus interruptus or pulling out)
  • Not an effective way to prevent pregnancy
  • Pre-ejaculatory fluid
  • If sperm is ejaculated close to the outside of the vagina, it can swim up into the vagina
rhythm method
Rhythm Method
  • Females learn to recognize the days they are fertile, and not having sex before and during those days
  • Women who have irregular cycles and who are not so careful often end up becoming pregnant