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‘Motivation in Real Life’ Activity In your ‘elbow groups’: Discuss your current jobs. List the motivators in your employment setting that contribute to your job satisfaction.
Selecting a Reward: Essential Tests • Do teacher and parent find the reward acceptable? • Is the reward available (conveniently and at an affordable cost) in schools? • Does the child find the reward motivating?
Creating ‘Reward Deck’: Steps • Teacher selects acceptable, feasible rewards from larger list • Teacher lists choices on index cards—creating a master ‘deck’ • Teacher selects subset of rewards from deck to match individual student cases
Creating ‘Reward Deck’: Steps(Cont.) • Teacher reviews pre-screened reward choices with child, who rates their appeal. (A reward menu is assembled from child’s choices.) • Periodically, the teacher ‘refreshes’ the child’s reward menu by repeating steps 1-4.
Motivation in Behavioral Theory B.F. Skinner
Law of Effect (Thorndike, 1898) Behaviors are selected (shaped) by their consequences. Source: Law of effect. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Law_of_Effect
Reinforcement: Definitions • Positive reinforcement. “When a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior.” • Negative reinforcement. “When a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behavior's frequency.” Source: Operant conditioning. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operant_conditioning
Punishment: Definitions • Positive punishment. “When a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.” • Negative punishment. “When a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.” Source: Operant conditioning. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operant_conditioning
Motivation • ‘Motivation’ in current behavioral theory is viewed as a function of the events that influence behavior. Those influencing events that precede behaivor are ‘antecedents’. Those influencing events that follow it are ‘consequences’.
Definitions of ‘Motivation’ “…motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.” Source: Motivation. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation
Definitions of ‘Motivation’ “Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior.” Source: Educational psychology. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_psychology#Motivation
Definitions of ‘Motivation’ “Motivation is typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction, and continuation of behavior.” Source: Excerpted from Chapter 11 of Biehler/Snowman, PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO TEACHING, 8/e, Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Definition of the ‘Flow’ State “Being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. Your whole being is involved, and you're using your skills to the utmost.” --Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Source: Geirland, J. (Septermber, 1996). Go with the flow. Wired Magazine. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.09/czik_pr.html
Qualities of Activities that May Elicit a ‘Flow’ State • The activity is challenging and requires skill to complete • Goals are clear • Feedback is immediate • There is a ‘merging of action and awareness’. ‘All the attention is concentrated on the relevant stimuli’ so that individuals are no longer aware of themselves as ‘separate from the actions they are performing’ • The sense of time’s passing is altered: Time may seem slowed or pass very quickly • ‘Flow’ is not static. As one acquires mastery over an activity, he or she must move to more challenging experiences to continue to achieve ‘flow’ Source: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row
Student A: Low Skills, Low Challenge • Student C: Low Skills, High Challenge • Student D: High Skills, High Challenge • Student B: High Skills, Low Challenge (High) Anxiety D Flow Channel A Boredom C B (Low) (Low) (High) Flow Channel Challenges Skills Source: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row
……………… ……………… 0 10 X X ...………… ...………… 0 10 0 0 Unmotivated Students: What Works Motivation can be thought of as having two dimensions: • the student’s expectation of success on the task The relationship between the two factors is multiplicative. If EITHER of these factors (the student’s expectation of success on the task OR the student’s valuing of that success) is zero, then the ‘motivation’ product will also be zero. Multiplied by • the value that the student places on achieving success on that learning task Source:Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
Our Working Definition of ‘Academic Motivation’ For This Workshop The student puts reasonable effort into completing academic work.
Motivating Ideas About Motivating Students…Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
Workshop Goals: • In this workshop, you will: • Review information about ‘faulty thinking’ that can undercut a student’s self-confidence and motivation to learn • Think about a framework for thinking about student motivation that gives you influence over that student’s investment in learning. • Review common, simple academic strategies to make learning interesting and to increase student motivation and follow-through.
Assessing Students’ Ideas About ‘Self-Efficacy’ • Self-Efficacy. The student’s view of his or her own abilities related to specific learning tasks and subject areas. • Self-Esteem. The student’s global view of his or her self-worth. Source:Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313–327.
Assessing Students’ Ideas About ‘Self-Efficacy’(Cont.) Encourage the student to: • talk about perceived strengths and weaknesses in particular subject areas • share details about successes or failures experienced in examples of academic tasks • present strategies that they typically use to complete common academic tasks (e.g., undertaking a term paper, doing homework) • disclose their routine for preparing for quizzes and tests.
Motivating Students: ‘Catch’ vs. ‘Hold’ Factors • Catch Factors. Grab the student’s attention (e.g., catchy graphics in a computer game, Jeopardy format for quiz review) • Hold Factors. Encourage the student to invest time and effort in a learning activity over a prolonged period of time (e.g., cooperative learning activity, ‘high-interest’ activity)
Motivating Students: ‘Catch’ vs. ‘Hold’ Factors (Cont.) Teacher strategy to engage difficult-to-teachstudents: • Start lesson with high-interest ‘catch’ features • Transition to include more sustainable ‘hold’ features.
Motivating Students: ‘Catch’ vs. ‘Hold’ Factors (Cont.) Example of teacher strategy to engage difficult-to-teach students in review of math vocabulary: • Students first sent individually around the school on a ‘scavenger hunt’, to collect examples of math vocabulary posted on walls and bulletin boards (‘catch’ activity). • After students return to classroom, the teacher organizes them into groups, has each group compile a master-list of their math vocabulary words, and define the math operation(s) to which each word is linked (‘hold’ activity).
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to Academic Outcomes People regularly make ‘attributions’ about events and situations in which they are involved that ‘explain’ and make sense of those happenings.
Attribution Theory: Dimensions Affecting Student Interpretation of Academic Successes & Failures (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002) The situation or event is… ·Unstable (changes often) ·Stable (can be counted on to remain relatively unchanged) ·Internal (within the student) ·External (occurring in the surrounding environment) ·Uncontrollable (beyond the ability of the student to influence) ·Controllable (within the student’s ability to influence) How Attributions About Learning Contribute to Academic Outcomes
The situation or event is… ·Unstable (changes often) ·Stable (can be counted on to remain relatively unchanged) ·Internal (within the student) ·External (occurring in the surrounding environment) ·Uncontrollable (beyond the ability of the student to influence) ·Controllable (within the student’s ability to influence) How Attributions About Learning Contribute to Academic Outcomes So I did lousy on this one test. That’s OK. Next time, I will study harder and my grades should bounce back. Some people are born writers. I was born to watch TV. This teacher always springs pop quizzes on us—and picks questions that are impossible to study for! I can’t get any studying done at home because my brother listens to the radio all the time.
Finding the Spark:Strategies for Working With the Unmotivated LearnerJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
‘Big Ideas’ About Motivation… Idea #1: Motivation is not a quality that resides solely in the student. Instead, motivation is a result of the interaction between the student and his or her learning environment.
‘Big Ideas’ About Motivation… Idea #2: A student’s level of motivation is greatly influenced by his or her learning history. A history of bad school experiences can make students very resistant to encouragement and incentives.
‘Big Ideas’ About Motivation… Idea #3: As students become older, their desire to protect and to promote their self-image becomes significantly more important in determining their motivation level.
‘Big Ideas’ About Motivation… Idea #4: Teachers can increase the attractiveness of an academic activity or assignment through changes in the: • Learning environment • Social community • Academic activity • Learning challenge • Outcome or payoff
Elements of Effective Motivation-Building Environment Community Activities Payoffs Learning Challenges
Motivating Students: Environment The setting in which we work can encourage us to give our best effort or discourage us from even trying to perform.
Motivating Students: Ideas for…Environment • Let students choose their seat location and study partners. • Enlist students to come up with rules and guidelines for effective classroom learning. • Create a memory-friendly classroom. Post assignments and due dates, written steps for multi-step tasks, etc.
Motivating Students: Community We define ourselves in relation to others by our social relationships. These connections are a central motivator for most people.
Motivating Students: Ideas for…Community • Ask students to complete a learning-preferences questionnaire. • Hold weekly 5-minute ‘micro-meetings’ with the group or class. • Use ‘2 X 10’ rule: Hold 2-minute friendly conversations across 10 days with students who are not attached to learning • Provide 3 positive interactions with students for every ‘negative’ interactions (e.g., reprimand)
Motivating Students: Activities Motivated students are engaged in interesting activities that guarantee a high success rate and relate to real-world issues.
Motivating Students: Ideas for…Activities • Select fun, imaginative activities for reviewing academic material. • Prior to assignments, have students set work or learning goals. Have students rate their own progress toward their goals. • Celebrate mistakes as opportunities for learning.
Motivating Students: Learning Challenges Every learner presents a unique profile of strengths and weaknesses. We unlock motivation when we acknowledge and address unique learning profiles.
Motivating Students: Ideas for…Learning Challenges • Avoid ‘stigmatizing’ as low performers those students who require remedial academic support. • Use a ‘think-aloud’ approach when introducing a skill or strategy. • Allow students to take a brief break when tired or frustrated. • Allow frequent opportunities for ‘choice’ in structuring instructional setting and activities
Motivating Students: Payoffs for Learning Learning is a motivating activity when the learner can count on short- or long-term payoffs for mastering the material being taught.