▪ Humans’ ability to engage in complex thoughts influences behavior. ▪ Cognitions (like behaviors) can be learned. ▪ Focus on: ▪ Cognitive structure (how people think) ▪ Cognitive content (what people think). Cognitive Psychology . Cognitive Structure.
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▪ Cognitions (like behaviors) can be learned.
▪ Focus on:
▪ Cognitive structure (how people think)
▪ Cognitive content (what people think)Cognitive Psychology
▪ HOW WE THINK (Consistent Patterns)
▪ Ability to empathize
▪ Ability to morally reason
▪ Ability to control anger
▪ Rationalizations or denials that support criminal behavior
▪ For example, a criminal thinks, “I’m not really hurting anyone.”
▪ Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts
▪ Cognitive restructuring attempts to change the content of an individual’s thoughts.
▪ Confront antisocial attitudes when they are expressed
▪ Multisystematic therapy (MST)
▪ Creator Scott Henggeler and associates
▪ Comprehensive approach that targets many areas for change
▪ Very behavioral
▪ Crime and delinquency related to the presence of some personality trait
▪ Personality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstances
▪ Personality: the sum of personality traits that define a person
▪ A number of related traits combine to form dimensions (super factors)
▪ Several different models
▪ Five-factor model
▪ Tellegen’s personality model
▪ Recent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
▪ Personality dimensions in the MPQ
▪ Harm avoidance
▪ Negative emotionality
▪ Stress reaction
▪ MPQ predicts crime pretty well
▪ A distinct “criminal personality”
▪ One of the oldest concepts in criminology
1. Disregard for the rights of others. At least three of the following:
behaves in a way that is grounds for arrest, deceitful and manipulative, impulsive, aggressive, irresponsible, lack of remorse
2. Age 18 or older
3. A history of child conduct disorder
4. Antisocial behavior not a product of schizophrenic episode
▪ Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime.
▪ “Feeblemindedness” was once thought to be a cause of crime.
▪ What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior?
▪ Binet started out like his peers: Measuring people’s skull size
▪ There is an IQ gap of 8–10 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class.
▪ IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior.
▪ Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang
▪ The Bell Curve
▪ Most criminologists find evidence of indirect effects
IQ School, Peers, etc. Crime
▪ The common emphasis of all psychological theories is on the individual.
▪ Modern Theory
▪ Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs.
The “Chicago School”
(Norms are Weakened)
Human Nature as
therefore cap or control
Social Ties Important
The Anomie/Strain Tradition
The Social Disorganization and “Informal Control” Tradition (Today)
How does a city growth and develop?
Zone in transition
1. Stable, despite multiple waves of immigrants!!
2. Only certain areas of the city Something about
this area causes delinquency
1. Social Control
2. Cultural Transmission of Values
Using British Crime Survey Data (BCS)
Ecological Social Crime
Characteristics Control Rates