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China and the Revolution

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  1. China and the Revolution

  2. The End of Chinese Imperial Rule • Reasons • foreign influence during Age of Imperialism • China abused by Western nations • China lacked industrialization • weak military • poor education system

  3. The End of Chinese Imperial Rule • Nationalists • Kuomintang (KMT) the nationalist party in China • leader was Sun Yixian (Sun Yat Sen) • leader of China for only 6 weeks

  4. Sun Yixian • "Three Principles of the People" • Nationalism-- end foreign control • Democracy-- rights of/by/for the people • Economic security/freedom for all • Sun turned control over to Yuan Shikai • Yuan turned China into military dictatorship • revolution & warlords dominated China . • peasants & country as a whole suffered

  5. World War I • Joined Allied side in 1917 • hoped to have foreign influence in China removed in return • German-held land in China given to Japan by Versailles Treaty

  6. World War I • May Fourth Movement (May 1919) • when news of treaty reached China, protests broke out in China • KMT shared anger of May Fourth Movement but unable to increase own power or make reforms • Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung) among the young communists who called for revolution in China • increasing numbers of Chinese turned away from democracy and toward communism

  7. The Rise of the Communists in China • Sun Yixian disillusioned by Western nations • liked Lenin's (Soviet Union's) organization • Sun asked for/received aid from Soviets • Soviets sent military aid/advisers/equipment to China • in return for aid communists were allowed to join the KMT

  8. The Rise of the Communists in China • Death of Sun Yixian (1925) → Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) taking over • had middle and upper classes on his side • middle & upper classes feared communist influence on the economy

  9. The Rise of the Communists in China • Jiang Jieshi worked with communists to put down the warlords • KMT needed more men to fight • Turned against communists soon after

  10. Shanghai Massacre (April 1927) • April 1927 • communists nearly eliminated • Civil War begins • Jiang Jieshi becomes president of China • communists flee to western China

  11. Chinese Civil War (1927-1949) • Jiang loses support of the peasant class • promised reforms were never delivered to peasants • cities modernized; rural areas ignored • Mao & communists redistributed land to the peasants

  12. The Long March (1934) • communists were outnumbered by 6:1 • had to retreat to mountains of western China 6000 miles away • thousands of communists killed but not whole army • communists live to fight another day-- seals Jiang's fate

  13. Japan's Invasions of China (1931 & 1937) • Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 in response to economic problems of the Depression • Japan created puppet state of Manchukuo

  14. Japan's Invasions of China (1931 & 1937) • Japan invaded remainder of China in 1937 • Japan reasoned China was distracted from defense by Civil War • invasion brought about uneasy truce b/t communists & KMT • both sides supposed to work together against Japan • Jiang promised to make needed reforms--he didn't

  15. The End of the Civil War in China • The Civil War resumed in 1945 at end of WWII • Jiang's Nationalists millions received millions in US aid money • money went into Jiang's pockets instead into KMT's soldiers' • Jiang had much larger army • did not suffer great losses in war--they let communists do the fighting

  16. The End of the Civil War in China • KMT was corrupt, incompetent & offered nothing to the common soldier • KMT soldiers deserted in large numbers • deserters joined communists • by 1949 communists pushed KMT of mainland China • KMT forced to Taiwan & created Republic of China • US supported Taiwan & USSR supported People's Republic of China

  17. China Under Mao • signed friendship agreement with Soviets in 1950 • Mao began land redistribution program • 10% of population (550 million) owned 70% of the land • anyone who resisted was killed (about a million)

  18. China Under Mao • Agricultural changes • created small collective farms at first consisting of 200-300 families • success of collective farms led Mao to proclaim the Great Leap Forward

  19. China Under Mao • the Great Leap Forward • designed to improve China's agriculture • created communes to build on success of collective farms • huge farms (25,000 people or more) • failed miserably b/c peasants had no ownership of anything they produced • crop failures led to death of over 20 million