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ANANGU EDUCATION CONFERENCE. ALICE SPRINGS June / July 2003. ESL STRATEGIES: EARLY YEARS Scales 1 – 6 (1 – 4). Model of Language. Text in Context. Sociocultural Context Genre. Situational Context. Tenor. Field. Mode. Field Continuum.

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ANANGU EDUCATION CONFERENCE

ALICE SPRINGS

June / July 2003

ESL STRATEGIES: EARLY YEARS

Scales 1 – 6 (1 – 4)


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Model of Language

Text in Context

Sociocultural Context

Genre

Situational Context

Tenor

Field

Mode


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Field Continuum

everyday fields………...specialised fields……highly technical fields


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Tenor Continuum

equal status ……………….…………….. great difference in status

familiar …….………………………………...……………..very distant

great deal of emotional expression….little emotional expression


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Mode continuum

most spoken………………….…………….....… most written


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Sociocultural Context

Situational Context

Situational Context

Model of Language

Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

Genre

Tenor

Tenor

Mode

Field

Mode

Field


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • broader strand

  • more specific strand

  • resources in the English language

Situational Context

Field

Tenor

Mode


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • range of genres

  • purposes

  • structure

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • build cohesion

  • expand sentences

Situational Context

Field

  • informational element

  • everyday to technical vocabulary

  • verbs

  • noun groups

  • nominalisations

  • circumstances

  • topic specific vocabulary

Tenor

  • interpersonal element

  • formality to familiarity

  • modality

  • appraisal

  • speech functions

  • idioms

  • non-verbal elements

Mode

  • textual element

  • spoken to written

  • multimodal texts

  • foregrounding

  • coherence

  • voice and tense

  • print conventions


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Text in Context

Language

range of genres

purposes

structure

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure

  • cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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Text in Context

Language

language choices -

structure texts

build cohesion

expand sentences

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • expand sentences

  • build cohesion

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • purposes

  • structure

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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  • Genre: Scale 2

  • participates in basic spoken exchanges depending on memorising segments

  • responds in basic spoken exchanges involving two or three turns

  • uses one or two examples of pronoun reference

S: Good morning, good morning everyone.

All: Good morning everyone

S: My mum buy for me a gun

T: A gun? What do you do with that?

S: and Barbie and car

T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those?

S: nods (goes and sits down)


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  • Genre: Scale 3

  • constructs elementary examples of basic genres by speaking and writing with a high degree of scaffolding

  • demonstrates an understanding of the structure of several basic genres

  • uses basic pronouns: I


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  • Genre: Scale 4

  • organises the meanings in brief written texts in a logical order

  • writes several pieces of information about a living thing

  • topic words at the front of sentences in a report

  • begins to expand information using linking conjunctions: and, but

  • uses a limited range of cohesive resources: possessive pronouns, third person pronouns, demonstrative pronouns


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1. List events in order

1………church

2………camping

3………school

2. Order

I went to school.

I went camping.

I went to church.

1

2

3

3. Write sentences

I went to church. I went camping. I went to school.

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Genre: Structure – Logical order

4. Draw pictures of activities, in order, and write sentences

1. ……...……… 2. ……….. 3. …………….


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3. Listen again to the spoken instructions and

complete the table

action

what

how long

Strategies Scales 1- 4

1. Play bingo with actions, ingredients and utensils for cooking.

2. Follow spoken instructions and order pictures of actions. Label each picture with an action verb: stir, pour, boil…

Genre: Structure – Action Words - Procedure

4. Write instructions from the table.

5. Colour the action words and notice their position. Compare with a recount.

6. Cut and jumble the sentences and give to another student to order.

7. Complete a cloze of the instructions.

8. List new ingredients.

9. Observe, discuss and write new instructions.


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

1. List singular and plural forms of words

2. Talk about specific and general nouns

Genre: Structure – Topic words - Report

3. Compare sentences

A cat has fur. Cats have fur. My cat has fur.

4. Compare texts with the different sentences.

5. Colour the form of noun in reports

6. Be specific about the form of verb needed for a report.


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2. Tracking participants in a short text

Once upon a time there lived a lady.

Her name was Sadie.

She lived in a house.

It was a pretty one

Strategies Scales 1- 4

  • Understanding of reference items

  • Where is her book? Put it there.

Genre: Cohesion – Reference Items

3. Cloze

Once upon a time there lived a man.

………. name was Bob.

…….. lived in a caravan.

…….. was new.

4. Compare the pattern of reference items between

a recount and a procedure.

5.Colour use of reference items in own texts.


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didn’t buy

bought

Bob bought ……and …but he didn’t buy ………..

3. True or False

He went to the store but he didn’t buy bread.

He went to the store but he didn’t buy chips.

He went to the store. He bought bread and chips.

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Genre: Expansion - Linking conjunctions - and, but

  • Shopping basket:

    Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread and apples.

    Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread, apples and ….. but he didn’t buy chips.

4. True stories

Write true storiesabout Bob.


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

  • informational element

  • everyday to highly technical

Situational Context

Field

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • expand sentences

  • build cohesion

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

  • verbs

  • noun groups

  • nominalisations

  • circumstances

  • topic specific vocabulary

Situational Context

Field

  • informational element

  • everyday to technical vocabulary

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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  • Field: Scale 2

  • uses vocabulary that is mainly commonsense but chooses isolated concrete technical vocabulary: Barbie

  • understands a small range of vocabulary expressing immediate interests:

    • common noun groups

    • common actions

S: Good morning, good morning everyone.

All: Good morning everyone

S: My mum buy for me a gun

T: A gun? What do you do with that?

S: and Barbie and car

T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those?S: nods (goes and sits down)


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  • Field: Scale 3

  • uses very basic phrases of location

  • expands vocabulary by describing according to size

Well the story was about as a little fish and one... boy to go to school and he walk in the jungle and he pass in the big tree and he sit, he, he, he...sit on the thing on the ground and he look to the water and he see some fish and when he come to school he.. he make some boat and when he come into the jungle too, he put some fish on the boat and it the boat and the little boy the boat on the water


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  • Field: Scale 3

  • uses vocabulary that is mainly commonsense but chooses some concrete technical vocabulary: orange juice, church

  • expands vocabulary using numbers, describers, classifiers: orange juice


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  • Field: Scale 4

  • uses vocabulary that is commonsense but begins to use some technical vocabulary: ball chasy, watermelon

  • uses very basic phrases expressing circumstances: On Sunday, outside, at night-time


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  • Field: Scale 4

  • uses very basic circumstances

  • expands vocabulary using numbers, describers, classifiers

  • uses technical vocabulary for educational fields such as science


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

Field: Noun groups

  • Word groups: build groups following the pattern

  • a car

  • a brown car

  • one old brown car

  • one old brown Holden car

2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words

number opinion fact classifier key concept

3. Multiple choice from a story or picture

Is she wearing a big yellow hat or a small blue hat?

4. Describing people

A student with one set of pictures describes them to another student with another set, to put them in the same order.

5. Draw a 3 legged wooden stool with a fur top.

6. Experiment with the effect of positive and negative describers: sweet smelling /smelly


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  • Follow instructions

  • Draw a book near the vase.

  • Draw a ball under the table.

  • Draw a man behind the flower.

3. Describe a picture.

next to in behind

The car is …… the garage.

The fence is ……. the tree.

The tree is …….. the house.

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Field: Circumstances - location

2. Answering questions

Is the vase on the table?

Is the vase under the table?

Is the vase next to the table?


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  • Questions

    • Where is the vase?

    • Where is the ball?

    • Where is the clock?

    • Where are the flowers?

  • Noughts and crosses

near

in

in front

  • behind

  • next to

on

over

under

between

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Field: Circumstances - location


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

Field: verbs

  • Colour the verbs in sentences.

  • Illustrate the verbs.

  • Group the verbs. You may get thinking, doing, saying, being verbs.

  • Find examples of verbs that have more than one meaning eg I see

  • Compare the types of verbs in recounts, reports and procedures.

  • Cloze exercise for verbs.


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

  • interpersonal element

  • familiar to formal

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

  • modality

  • appraisal

  • speech functions

  • idioms

  • non-verbal elements

Tenor

  • interpersonal element

  • formality, familiarity and attitude

  • non-verbal elements

  • speech functions

  • modality

  • attitudinal lexis

  • idioms

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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  • Tenor: Scale 2

  • responds in socially appropriate ways

  • chooses common formulaic expressions

  • pronounces most words comprehensively

S: Good morning, good morning everyone.

All: Good morning everyone

S: My mum buy for me a gun

T: A gun? What do you do with that?

S: and Barbie and car

T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those?

S: nods (goes and sits down)


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

Tenor: feeling and attitude

  • Cloze

  • like don’t like

  • I ………….. ice cream.

  • I ………… winter.

2. Find someone who

Find someone who likes winter.

Find someone who doesn’t like icecream.

3. Rehearse

Do you like….? Yes I do. No I don’t

4. Report back

Who likes ice cream? Sue likes icecream.

Who likes winter? Dan and Bill like winter.

5. Experiment with intonation and the use of very, so, much.


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

Speech functions

  • Understanding of patterns of statements, questions, offers

    • Do you have a pen? Do you have a book?

    • Do you have lunch?

    • Can I help you? Can I write for you?

    • Can I visit you?

    • Can I have your book? Can I have my book?

    • Can I have your attention?

    • Give me your book. Give me my book.

    • Give me your attention.

  • 2. Compare

    • Can I help you? Can I have your book?

    • Give me your book.

    • Note their level of politeness.

    • Discuss their appropriateness.


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

  • textual element

  • spoken to written

  • multimodal

Mode

  • the ‘how’

  • its textual elements

  • range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • the language choices -organise texts

  • focus foregrounding


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Text in Context

Language

Sociocultural Context

Genre

  • the range of genres

  • specific purposes

  • structure and cohesion

  • language choices -

  • structure texts

  • cohesive

Situational Context

Field

  • the ‘what’, or content

  • its informational elements

  • range from everyday to technical vocabulary

  • word groups and phrases

  • the verbs

  • participants

  • circumstances

Tenor

  • the ‘who’

  • interpersonal elements

  • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude

  • the language choices

  • who questions or commands

  • how degrees of certainty expressed.

Mode

  • textual element

  • deals with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts

  • foregrounding

  • voice and tense

  • print conventions

  • foregrounding

  • voice and tense

  • print conventions


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  • Mode: Scale 1

  • handwriting: legible letters

  • representing sounds: some attempt


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  • Mode: Scale 3

  • repetitive sentence beginnings: I

  • limited control of primary tenses: simple present used instead of simple past

  • print conventions: spells with some accuracy


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  • Mode: Scale 4

  • some control of primary tenses for most common regular verbs but a strictly limited control of secondary tenses

  • experiments with punctuation: fullstops and capitals used


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  • Mode: Scale 4

  • repetitive sentence beginnings

  • some control of primary tenses

  • spells most common words and others on own pronunciation

  • experiments with punctuation


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2. Compare foregrounding

Recount:

My brother Person

We Person

On Saturday Time

Procedure:

Open Action

Lift Action

Fold Action

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Mode: Foregrounding

  • Identify foregrounded elements in a recount and a procedure

  • My brother took me in his car. We went to my uncle’s house. On Saturday we went home.

  • Open the box. Lift the paper. Fold the paper.

3. Compile

time words

action words


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4. Picture cloze

What did the boy do yesterday?

He sat ……………………..

He…………… a game on the computer.

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Mode: Tense

  • Lists of verbs

  • go went sit sat play played

    • have had watch watched

  • 2. Model

  • Everyday I go to school.

    • Yesterday I played football.

  • 3. Question and answer

  • What do you do everyday? I go to school.

    • What did you do yesterday? I played football.


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7. Time

What are they doing now?

What were they doing an hour ago?

What will they do soon?

What were they doing yesterday?

…..ed

change word

are …….ing

will ……….

were …ing

past perfect

past

now

future

Strategies Scales 1- 4

Mode: Tense

5.Cloze

Yesterday David …………. (drive) a car.

He ………….. (drive) a car everyday.

6.Pattern

I …………… now.

I …………… everyday.

I ……………. yesterday.

I …………….. tomorrow.


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Strategies Scales 1- 4

A

B

C

D

report about cities

description

about Alice Springs

personal response

recount about yesterday

technical vocab

simple present

noun groups

circumstances

evaluative language

pronouns

time

past tense

pronouns

Comparing texts

Cities are very busy. Some people go to work in offices and some people go shopping and some people go to look at the old and new buildings.

Alice Springs is a beautiful city. There are many shops. The mountains are around the city.

I like Alice Springs. I like visiting my grandmother there.

Yesterday I went to visit my grandmother in Alice Springs.


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