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European Colonization. European Colonization. Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world…. Spain England France Portugal This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars. F/I War 1750. The Spanish.

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European colonization
European Colonization

European Colonization

  • Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world….

    • Spain

    • England

    • France

    • Portugal

  • This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.



  • Spain was the firstto pursue colonization, wanted GOLD

  • First permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by Spain

Explorers Sailing For Spain

  • Columbus - Italian sailing for Spain - Landed in the Bahamas- 1492

  • Wanted to reach Asia, not America

  • Magellan - Portuguese sailing for Spain - 1st to circumnavigate the world - 1522

  • On his second voyage Columbus brought Conquistadors

  • Spanish soldiers who came to the New World to help conquer and settle the Americas for Spain.

  • Some of their methods were harsh and brutal especially to the Native American population.


Bartolom de las casas
Bartolomé de lasCasas

  • Priest that came to the new world and recorded what he saw

  • “With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the nose and ears of Indians, male and female, without provocation, merely because it pleased them to do it.”

  • “They took infants from their mothers' breasts, snatching them by the legs and pitching them headfirst against the crags or snatched them by the arms and threw them into the rivers, roaring with laughter and saying as the babies fell into the water, "Boil there, you offspring of the devil!”

First Spanish Conquests: The AztecsHernanCortes conquered Aztec Empire in 1519 and took control of modern day Mexico.


Hernando Cortés

Montezuma II

Cortes continued
Cortes continued

  • Captures and kills the Aztec leader Montezuma

  • Led to fall of the largest indigenous civilization in South America

  • Showed how much power Europeans had over tribes in America


  • Another factor of why Europeans succeeded in dominating tribes in America.

  • Native Americans were not immune to European diseases.

Spanish and natives get it on spanish class system
Spanish and natives get it on!!Spanish Class System

  • The more Spanish blood you had the more important you were….

  • 1. Peninsulares: People born in Spain

  • 2. Creoloes: Spainish people born in America

  • 3. Mezstizos: Half Native/Half European

  • 4. Mulattoes: Half Native/Half Black

The Colonial Class System

PeninsularesSpanish ancestory

CreolesSpanish and Black mixture.

MestizosSpanish and Indian mixture

MulattosWhite American and Black mixture

Black Slaves

Native Indians


Spanish practice of forcing natives to work for free. Natives must honor their new rulers.

First form of slavery in the new world.

Encomiendasystem eventually killed off the Indian population due to starvation and disease.


  • Spanish sent missionaries to convert Native Americans to Catholicism.

  • Showed no respect for the natives religion.

Indentured servants
Indentured servants

  • People that came to America to work as servants for free! Different then slaves.

  • Would have their trip to the New World paid for.

  • They would also receive food and shelter.

Think pair share

  • Why would someone agree to be an indentured servant?

  • How is it different then slavery?

European colonization1

The Portuguese

European Colonization

  • The Portuguese were the first to begin searching for an all water route to Asia…..

    • Prince Henry the Navigator – 1450’s

Explorers sailing for portugal
Explorers Sailing For Portugal

  • Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal - Funded Exploration down coast of Africa

  • Created a school for explorers

  • daGama- Portugal - Opened trade with India First European to get to Asian by sea!

The French

  • French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become Canada

    • Develop a fur trade

English catholics
English Catholics

  • Sailed to America to escape religious oppression.

  • Wanted religious freedom.

  • Protestant vs. Catholic

Triangular trade
Triangular Trade

  • Slave trade route between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Middle passage
Middle Passage

  • Journey from Africa to America

  • Slaves were crammed into ships, chained, naked, and with very little food or water.

  • Horrible conditions

Effects of exploration
Effects of Exploration

  • Columbian exchange

  • Mercantilism rises

  • Slave trade begins

  • Thousands of Native Americans die from disease

  • Was exploration good for the world???